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L. Bian, W. J. Gapare, M. Ivković, P. Jefferson and H. X. Wu
A total of 1226 increment cores were sampled from two provenance trials of Pinus radiata D. Don planted in New Zealand (Kaingaroa) and Australia (Kangaroovale), to study variation and inheritance of wood density in selections from three mainland California natural populations: Año Nuevo, Monterey and Cambria. The study represents a back-to-back comparison of the same provenance and family material on contrasting sites between New Zealand and Australia. Monterey was significantly different to Año Nuevo and Cambria at Kaingaroa (p<0.05), and had slightly higher density, whereas all provenances were almost identical and not significantly different at Kangaroovale. However, there were significant differences for wood density at family level for Año Nuevo and Cambria at Kangaroovale. No significant provenance or family differences were detected for core length at either site. The estimates of heritability for wood density were all above 0.50 and generally higher at Kaingaroa than at Kangaroovale. Estimates of additive genetic correlations between wood density and core length were imprecise. Genotype × site interactions for density appeared minor (estimated type-B genetic correlation= 0.70) despite substantial differences in rainfall and soils. The similarity of Cambria to Año Nuevo for density is an interesting result because the genetic base of the present Australian and New Zealand plantations has been shown to be from Año Nuevo and Monterey. Infusion of Cambria material would increase the overall genetic base of the radiata pine breeding programs, with potential long-term benefits, despite the often disappointing growth performance of material collected from Cambria.
M.K. Pagliarini, W.S. Kieras, J.P. Moreira, V.A. Sousa, J.Y. Shimizu, M.L.T. Moraes, E. Furlani and A.V. Aguiar
The study was conducted to estimate the stability, adaptability, productivity and genetic parameters in Slash pine second-generation half-sib families, considering phenotypic traits in early age. Forty-four families from a first generation seed orchard in Colombo-PR, Brazil, were used in this study. Two progenies tests were established in a randomized complete block design. The first test was implemented in March 2009 in Ribeirão Branco, São Paulo state, containing 40 blocks, one tree per plot, 44 treatments (progenies) and 6 controls. Another test was implemented in Ponta Grossa, Paraná state, using the same experimental design and number of plants per plot, and with 24 treatments, 32 blocks. The growth traits evaluated were total height, diameter at breast height (dbh) and wood volume, within five years. The form traits evaluated were stem form, branch thickness, branch angle, number of branches, fork and fox tail five years after planting. Deviance analysis and estimates of stability, adaptability, productivity and genetic parameters were performed using the methods of best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) and residual maximum likelihood (REML). There was significant variation among progenies for growth and form traits. Considerable genetic variation was detected mainly for wood volume. High coefficients of genetic variation and heritability showed low environmental influence on phenotypic variation, which is important for the prediction of genetic gain by selection. Crosses between different progenies individuals groups will be prioritized for obtaining heterotics genotypes and increase the probability of obtaining high specific combining ability.
B. Wielinga, C. A. Raymond, R. James and A. C. Matheson
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