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Londiwe Simphiwe Mbatha, Fiona Chepkoech Maiyo and Moganavelli Singh
Use of exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) has shown potential in gene silencing. The need for target-specific siRNA delivery vehicles is crucial to successful gene silencing. This study is aimed at developing and evaluating the safety and efficiency of siRNA delivery using unmodified and folic acid (FA) modified poly(amidoamine) generation 5 (PAMAM G5D) functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au:G5D/Au:G5D:FA) in vitro. All formulations were physico--chemically characterized and nanocomplexes were evaluated using the band shift, dye displacement, nuclease protection, MTT cell viability, and luciferase reporter gene assays. Nanocomplexes bound and protected siRNA against degrading RNases, and were well tolerated by the cells. The Au:G5D:FA nanocomplexes elicited excellent gene silencing in folate receptor expressing HeLa-Tat-Luc cells, decreasing significantly in the presence of excess FA ligand, indicating nanocomplex uptake by the mechanism of receptor mediation. These results highlight the synergistic role played by Au and the dendrimer in enhancement of transgene silencing.
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24. Leng Q, Scaria P, Zhu J, Ambulos N, Campbell P, Mixson AJ. Highly branched HK peptides are effective carriers of siRNA. J Gene Med. 2005; 7:977-86.
25. Han HD, Mangala LS, Lee JW, Shahzad MM, Kim HS, Shen D, et al. Targeted genesilencing using RGDLabeled chitosan nanoparticles. Clin Cancer Res. 2010; 16:3910-22. Epub 2010 Jun 10.
26. Davis ME, Zuckerman JE, Choi CH, Seligson D, Tolcher A, Alabi CA, et al. Evidence of RNAi in humans from
Suzana Mesojednik, Urška Kamenšek and Maja Čemažar
McManus MT, Petersen CP, Haines BB, Chen J, Sharp PA. Genesilencing using micro-RNA designed hairpins. RNA 2002; 8(6): 842-50.
Xie FY, Woodle MC, Lu PY. Harnessing in vivo siRNA delivery for drug discovery and therapeutic development. Drug Discov Today 2006; 11(1-2): 67-73.
Russ V, Wagner E. Cell and tissue targeting of nucleic acids for cancer gene therapy. Pharm Res 2007; 24(6): 1047-57.
Sersa G, Cemazar M, Miklavcic D, Rudolf Z
Rafal Baranski, Magdalena Klimek-Chodacka and Aneta Lukasiewicz
In this review, we present genetically modified (GM) horticultural events that have passed the regulatory process and have been approved for cultivation or food use in different countries. The first authorization or deregulation of a GM horticultural plant issued 25 years ago initiated a fast expansion of GM organisms (GMO) engineered by using gene transfer technology. The list of GM horticultural species comprises representatives of vegetables, fruit plants and ornamentals. We describe their unique characteristics, often not achievable by conventional breeding, and how they were developed, and the approval process. Information on the adoption of GM horticultural cultivars and sale is accessed if commercialization has occurred. The review comprises, among others, Flavr SavrTM and other tomato cultivars with delayed ripening and improved shelf-life, insect-resistant eggplant (or brinjal), as well as virus-resistant squash, melon and the common bean, and also fruit trees, plum and papaya. Cultivation of the latter was particularly valuable to farmers in Hawaii as it ensured restoration of papaya production devastated earlier by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). In contrast, a plum resistant to sharka (Plum pox virus; PPV) deregulated in the USA is still awaiting commercialization. GM events with improved quality include the recently marketed non-browning apple and high-lycopene pineapple. We also present orange petunia, blue ‘Applause’ rose and Moon-series carnations with a modified purple and violet flower colour. Finally, we discuss prospects of GM horticultural plants, including their development using promising new breeding technologies relying on genome editing and considered as an alternative to the transgenic approach.
Chris Donga, Jun Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang and Congjian Xu
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NA and M were upregulated. However, the plaque test showed that the influenza virus titer decreased. Thus, defective influenza virus may have been produced during the RNAi process. Previous studies [ 20 , 21 , 22 ] constructed shRNAs into vectors, making their genesilencing more effective than that of siRNAs. However, their inhibitory effect was less pronounced than that of siRNAs, and their role was more pronounced in A549 cells than in MDCK cells. Hence, the siRNA in the A549 cells is more likely to escape degradation of lysosomes.
Study of siRNA in
Ariana Neicu, Maria Neagu, Maria Dobre, Roxana Ivan and Camelia Dobrea
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6. Reichard KK, Hall BK, Corn A, Foucar MK, Hozier J. Automated analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization on