Latvian Blue (LZ) cows are kept for a variety of herd colors and because of national cow breed value. Resources of LZ cow breed remained low over the last decade. The aim of the study was to evaluate LZ cow breed linear conformation traits and analyze results in relation to their possession to the gene pool (GF) status and productive lifetime in 2017-2018. Information of the Agriculture Data Center Republic of Latvia (LDC) and linear evaluation in vivo were used. The number of LZ cows registered in LDC in 2017-2018 was 1648 and only 339 cows were gene-pool animals (LZ GF), and 140 of LZ GF animals were culled because of different reasons in 2017-2018. There were registered 544 (190 primiparous of them) closed standard LZ cow lactations in 2009 and only 292 (64 primiparous of them) in 2018. The oldest LZ GF cow was 16.3 years old; 20% of LZ GF cows were more than 10 years old, and only 10% were younger than 5 years. The overall exterior rating was established more than 80 points for 64.4% of the evaluated LZ GF cows. Some LZ GF linear conformation traits did not change significantly (p>0.05) with age – exterior, milking properties and cow’s temperament. Udder parameters, rump and foot angle became worse with animals advancing in age and could be improved by breeding. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were established regarding all parameters of conformation traits among LZ and LZ GF dairy cows except a tendency of larger body depth in LZ GF (p=0.054). In conclusion, the linear conformation traits of LZ cows, despite the presence of genetic influence of other breeds, do not differ significantly from the gene pool animals. Rump angle, udder and teat qualities became worse with age in LZ and LZ GF cows. Legs and hoofs were stable parameters inherited by the LZ offspring.
Research on the state and dynamics of the gene pool (an important natural resource that determines the potential fitness of living organisms and, ultimately, their long-term survival) becomes an important problem in the context of increased anthropogenic environmental impact. They are especially important for key species of ecosystems of a global scale importance. Larix sibirica Ledeb., which spreads from the Western Siberia to the Russian North-West, is one of such forest tree species. We identified patterns of genetic structure of populations on the example of the species’ Western race on the Middle and Northern Urals. The analysis of nucleotide polymorphism of genes of ABA-inducible protein, MADS-box-transcription factor and of 4-kumarat: CoA ligase (a part of the gene) was used as a method. Evidences were obtained that a part of the populations previously formed a single large population. At the same time, populations with different gene pools were found. As a result, differences between populations within the region were more pronounced (fixation index FST = -0.021 – 0.260, total haplotype diversity Hd = 0.636 – 0.911; nucleotide diversity π = 0.005 – 0.009; number of mutations θW = 0.005 – 0.012) than in other parts of the race. Causes of this phenomenon are discussed. It was concluded that the larch forests with a unique gene pool and/or high genetic diversity should be objects of population-oriented forestry and conservation.
The analysis of chosen selected Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), populations representing different seed regions: 107 (Międzyzdroje), 305 (Woziwoda), 206 (Strzałowo), 208 (Białowieża), 504 (Bolesławiec), 606 (Józefów) were performed using 10 isoensyme markers: Gdh (E.C.18.104.22.168), Sdh-A, Sdh-B (E.C.22.214.171.124), Pgd-B (E.C.126.96.36.199), Mdh-A, Mdh-C (E.C.188.8.131.52), Got-A, Got-B, Got-C (E.C.184.108.40.206), Dia-C (E.C.220.127.116.11). There were calculated following genetic parameters: allelic frequencies, observed and expected heterozygosities, and Wright’s fixation indexes. In populations, the results of analysis indicated presence of rare alleles. In all study populations, the average effective number of alleles per locus was 1.46 and was lower than expected number of alleles per locus of 1.93. The results for the effective number of alleles of the population per locus were as follows: Strzałowo and Białowieża 1.54, Bolesławiec 1.48, Jozefów 1.44, Świnoujście 1.42, Woziwoda 1.35. Average observed heterozygosity in the studied populations was calculated at the level of 0.26 and it was lower than the expected heterozygosity at 0.28. For populations, the level of heterozygosities were as follow: Strzałowo 0.35, Bolesławiec and Białowieża 0.25, Józefów 0.27, Świnoujście 0.23, Woziwoda 0.26. In particular loci level of heterozygosity was different, as the most heterozygous Mdh-C locus was estimated, while minimum Got-C.
Significant differences in allele frequency of Hardy-Weinberg deviation equilibrium were found in 10 cases: Strzałowo (Got-C), Bolesławiec (Got-B), Białowieża (Got-B, Gdh), Józefów (Mdh-C), Międzyzdroje (Got-B, Got-C, Mdh-C), Woziwoda (Got-C, Gdh). All studied populations had a lower effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) comparing to the observed number of alleles (Na). Wright’s fixation indices were negative for populations: Strzałowo (-0.09), Józefów (-0.03), Międzyzdroje (-0.01) and positive for: Białowieża (0.12), Woziwoda and Bolesławiec (0.07). The extremely high Wright’s fixation index (0.12) was observed for Białowieża population.
For the first time, the genetic structure of sheep breeds (Ascanian Fine-Fleeced, Ascanian Meat-and-Wool, AND Ascanian Karakul) and the hybrid Ascanian Fine-Fleeced × Texel was studied for structural gene variants: growth hormone, calpastatin, myostatin, and Booroola bone morphogenetic protein. In all studied groups, sheep were characterised by polymorphism of two loci, growth hormone and calpastatin. Two genotypes (A/A, A/B) represent genes of growth hormone structure, and three (M/M, M/N, N/N) represent genes of calpastatin structure. Other genes are in a monomorphic state. Analysis of the genetic relationships between the studied gene pools showed that there was a definite relationship between productivity of sheep herds and their molecular genetic parameters. Thus, the frequencies of individual genotypes and alleles change in the direction from Fine-Fleeced animals to sheep bred for meat productivity. For example, the heterozygous genotype A/B proportion of growth hormone gene increases in this direction from 0% to 38.2%, and allele A from 0.083 to 0.191. The live weight of Fine-Fleeced lambs with geno-type A/B at birth was 4.5 kg, and with homozygous genotype A/A — 4.9 kg (p < 0.001). This difference is genetically related to the meat productivity of sheep. A similar relationship was established for young Ascanian Karakul sheep. According to the distribution of polymorphic loci variants, the gene pools of Ascanian Meat-and-Wool breed and cross-bred animals are most similar closest among themselves, which is explained by the same direction of their productivity. At the same time, all populations are in genetic equilibrium according to Hardy-Weinberg equations, which indicates a high level of their consolidation. Sheep, which have the A/A homozygote of the gene growth hormone, have increased body weight.
On the basis of diversity of wild types of the genus Prunus L. (P. cerasifera, P. armeniaca, P. persica, P. fruticosa, P. lannesiana, P. maackii, P. tomentosa, P. pumila, and P. incana) in the collection of the Krymsk Experiment Breeding Station, highly adaptive, medium or weak vigour clonal rootstocks for stone fruit crops with good compatibility with grafted cultivars were selected: for plum, apricot and peach - Kuban 86, VVA-1, Evrika 99, Zarevo (Glow), Alab 1, Speaker, Best, VSV-1; and for sweet cherries and sour cherries - L-2, LC-52, VSL-1, VSL-2, and RVL-9. Part of the rootstocks were tested and successfully used in different parts of Russia and some near and far countries. The applied integration of tissue culture in vitro in the selection process at the station considerably promoted the rapid introduction of new rootstocks into world production. Technologies were developed for microclonal reproduction, and green and woody cuttings. The revealed light rooting of woody cuttings of stocks Kuban 86, Evrika 99, Zarevo, Best, VSL-1, RVL-9 (50-80%) allowed to develop technology for growing of young plants on these rootstocks directly in the first field of the nursery.
Only 62 individuals of the Przewalski’s horse (Equus przewalski) were brought from the wild to captivity during the period of the known existence of their wild population (1881 – ca. 1968), 24 males and 30 females in 1899–1903; 1 male and 4 females in 1942–1945; 1 male and 2 females in 1947. Of these horses, only 12 individuals (6 males, 6 females) from the first imports and a female from 1947 entered the global breeding programme of the Przewalski’s horse.
The total 43 Slovak spring barley genotypes with a year of cultivation or registration from 1938 to 2009 were evaluated in terms of selected parameters like protein, starch, and β-glucan contents. Collection of genetic resources consisted of barley malting qualities such as elite - A, standard quality - B, no malting quality - C and five genotypes of unspecified malting quality. Significant (P < 0.01) influence of genotype and environmental conditions (years) and also genotype × year interaction on protein, starch, and β-glucan content in the barley grain were detected. The highest average protein content was observed in genotypes from the group with undetermined malting quality. The protein and β-glucan contents in older genotypes were higher in comparison with more recent genotypes. The average starch content in both older and modern genotypes in the studied set was nearly identical, which confirms a high quality of the older malting varieties. According to malting quality groups, the highest average value of β-glucan content was in the group of no malting quality (C) and the lowest in the group of best malting quality (A), which is in correspondence with barley malting quality requirements. In individual years differences in the β-glucan content were found among genotypes. Despite the atypical years, good sources of β-glucan were found out along with modern genotypes such as Cyril and older genotypes such as Orbit and Vladan, but also historically old genotypes were created in the year 1946 such as Diosecký 802 and Slovenský Dunajský trh. Our study has confirmed that these genotypes are donors of not only significant agronomic traits but also qualitative properties, usable in the food industry.
Physiological Sciences, 30, 2, 1999. 5. Gladkova T.D.: Skin patterns of hand and foot in monkeys and humans. Moscow, Science, 151, 1966. 6. Khit G.L., Shirobokov I.G., Slavolyubova I.A. Dermatoglyphics in anthropology. St. Petersburg, 376, 2013. 7. Okushko V.R.: Genetic and ectogenetic factors forming dental rows. Biomedical and biosocial anthropology, 2, 2004. 8. Pochtarenko V.A., Yakushevich O.O.: Genetics and periodontics. The difficulties of a long journey. Dentistry for all, 4, 2008. 9. Pshenichnov A.S.: The structure of the genepool of Ukrainians from data on
The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that eggs from native breed laying hens fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials are not inferior in quality to eggs from laying hens receiving a standard diet but raised without outdoor access. The study involved Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11). Within each breed, the control group (C) consisted of 60 hens kept on litter without outdoor access, stocked at 5 birds/m2 and fed a diet containing 65.3% of local feed materials. The experimental group (E) contained 60 layers maintained on litter with access to an outdoor area (11 m2 per bird) and fed a diet containing 77.1% of local feed materials. Eggs from hens of both breeds, which received diets containing increased proportions of local feed materials had lower weight but higher yolk percentage. The quality of eggshells from hens fed the diet with increased amounts of local materials was similar to that of eggshells from confined hens. Egg yolk lipids from experimental groups were characterized by a more beneficial n-6/n-3 acid ratio and elevated vitamin A levels. These eggs had better sensory scores for colour, flavour and aroma, which suggests that it is appropriate to raise native breeds of chickens with outdoor access and local feed materials can be used in extensive husbandry systems.
-Herbots, H., Demaine, A., Papiha, S., Hedges, R., Bandelt, H.-J., Sykes, B. (1996). Paleolithic and neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial genepool. Amer. J. Hum. Genet ., 59 , 185–203. Rimantiene, R. (1996). Akmens amžius Lietuvoje [The Stone Age in Lithuania]. 2nd edn. Vilnius, Žiburio leidykla (in Lithuanian). Rosser, Z. H., Zerjal, T., Hurles, M. E., Adojaan, M., Alavantic, D., Amorim, A., Amos, W., Armenteros, M., Arroyo, E., Barbujani, G., Beckman, G., Beckman, L., Bertranpetit, J., Bosch, E., Bradley, D. G., Brede, G., Cooper, G., Corte-Real, H. B