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References Al Kharouf, A., & Al Bdour, T. (2006). Genderroles, which the youth develop within the jordanian family, a field study conducted in Tafilah City. Dirasat Journal, 33 (6), 539–568. Bandura, A. (2002). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Baruch, G. K., & Barnett, R. C. (1986). Fathers Participation in Family Work and Childrens SexRole Attitudes. Child Development, 57 (5), 1210. doi:10.2307/1130444 Bem, S. L. (1983). Gender Schema Theory and Its Implications for Child Development: Raising Gender-Aschematic Children in a
Does human sexual dimorphism influence fracture frequency, types and distribution?
This study explores the hypothesis that the pattern of gender inequality in a community influences the frequency, patterns and distribution of fractures. As it is not possible to read gender relations from skeletons, it is - following several research results - assumed that the level of gender inequality is reflected in sexual dimorphism. Thus the study design consists in correlating a measure of sexual dimorphism with measures of frequencies, patterns and distribution of skeletal trauma between the two sexes. Nearly two hundreds individuals from two medieval Danish cemeteries have been examined (43 females/48 males from Jutland and 46 females/49 males from Funen). Sexual dimorphism was assessed by means of measurements on the pelvis and, in accordance with conventional wisdom, the level of sexual dimorphism was found to be lower in the Funen than in the Jutland sample. The fracture frequencies, patterns and distribution were estimated for the two skeletal samples. No significant difference between the fracture frequencies or types on the two sites was found, but the distribution of fractures between the sexes in Ribe was found to be significantly different. The study indicates a level of relationship between human sexual dimorphism, gender roles, and the distribution of fractures between the sexes. Studies of larger samples will help clarify this.
This article discusses migratory gender roles within a north/north movement context. Using the case of older Norwegian women migrating to England while young, actively making migration part of their lives, it combines life course theory and migration theory about transnationalism, and presents three migratory life trajectory typologies. These are developed from life course interviews, based on class and gender role differences. One, upper-class based, is about transnational marriage as a key to leaving a small Norwegian community and becoming a ‘European’ housewife. Another, working-class based, is about using an au pair job as a stepping stone to migration and marriage, doing family-life-adapted paid work in Norwegian workplace ‘niches’. The third, middle-class based, is about using the migratory process for strengthening a professional identity. The article shows how a feeling of transnational ambiguity is exceeded the more the migratory gender role is about realising one’s own potentials, moving towards gender equality.
Forum 13 (4): 611-637. Pfau-Effinger, Birgit. 2004. Development of Culture, Welfare States and Women’s Employment in Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate. Saris, Willem E., Daniel Oberski, Melanie Revilla, Diana Zavala, Laur Lilleoja, Irmtraud Gallhofer and Tom Gruner. 2011. Final report about the project JRA3 as part of ESS Infrastructure. RECSM Working No. 24. Barcelona: Research and Expertise Centre for Survey Methodology. Sjöberg, Ola. 2010. Ambivalent Attitudes, Contradictory Institutions: Ambivalence in Gender-Role Attitudes in Comparative Perspective
This paper introduces the results of a two-stage analysis of one Japanese mainstream and one women’s pornographic film from the Internet, asking whether any differences between the gender representations of both sexes can be observed, and whether these differences correspond to the films’ Western counterparts. In the first stage, the films are being analysed regarding their correspondence to characteristics of mainstream pornography and, respectively, criteria of women’s pornography, which were developed through Western feminists’ debates. The detailed case studies of the two films that were selected as examples deal with their general and sexual contents, aesthetic elements, dialogues, and the appearance of the characters. In the second stage, the gender roles are being examined. The analysis firstly confirms that both films correspond to their Western counterparts and that they contain substantial differences concerning contents, aesthetic elements, dialogues, and the quality of the displayed relationship of the characters. Secondly, the paper shows that the gender representations in the mainstream pornographic film stick to conventional gender roles related to this genre, with an emphasis on male-centered sexual practices, which are linked to the female body’s objectification. By contrast, the women’s pornographic film features-besides female-friendly sexual practices-non-sexual aspects of the relationship between the characters and introduces an alternative male role model.
This paper investigates conceptual representations of women in 17th century conduct manuals for gentlemen published in England before and after the Civil War. The aim is to see whether the socio-cultural transformations produced by the Revolution are reflected in the metaphorical expressions referring to the female sex in a highly conservative textual genre
“Far from being unitary or monolithic or autonomous things, cultures actually assume more <foreign> elements, alterities, differences, than they consciously exclude.” (Said 15). Building on gender studies discourse, the present paper builds on Said’s view of cultural experiences at large as stated in the quotation above and attempts to illustrate what was at stake in the (trans)cultural relationship between space, place and textuality in the making of the Romanian romantic novel.
This paper aims to revisit three adaptations of Red Riding Hood fairy tales and explore some of the wolf’s reincarnations in order to see how realities change in time. It has generally been observed in the literature that in pop culture Red has undergone quite dramatic changes from the little ingénue to the mature seductress. But what has happened to the bad wolf? How is he imagined by the 21st century pop culture? How do his agency and power change? What (new) message does he convey? To answer these questions, I shall look at three fairly recent advertisements that adapt the classic Little Red story for the screen: “Red Bull” energizer (February 2010), “Chanel no. 5” (featuring actress Estella Warren, late 1990s, 2007) and “B.U. Heartbeat” (featuring Tyson Kuteyi, 2008) perfumes. I will explore not only how such commercials reframe the dominant Western cultural pattern, but if they also undo the lessons both men and women have so far been forced to learn.
Women as managers and/or key people in family businesses are explored in this paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in making important business decisions, supportive in traditionally men's business domains and is rarely adequately recognized and rewarded. Regardless, women find working for family businesses attractive and rewarding. We explore the differences in the views of men and women on issues in managing a small family-run business. Their attitudes on the roles of women, and general managerial and ownership issues, are surveyed. The findings support the paradigm of a feminine style of management and we pose the question whether businesses would be managed very differently if they were run by women.