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References Bem, Sandra. 1983. Gender Schema Theory and Its Implications for Child Development: Raising Gender-Aschematic Children in a Gender-Schematic Society. Signs vol. 8: 598–616. Blackstone, Amy. 2003. Gender Roles and Society . The University of Maine: Digital Commons@UMaine. Boyce, Carolyn and Palena Neale. 2006. Conducting In-Depth Interviews: A Guide for Designing and Conducting In-Depth-Interviews for Evaluation Input . Watertown: Pathfinder International. Cleveland, Jeanette N. and Melinda E. Kerst. 1993. Sexual Harassment and Perceptions of Power

References [1] Max Weber Economie si societate , Ed. Politica, 1972. [2] Easter, Peter, Halman, Loek, de Moor, Ruud (1993) – ‘Values Shift in Western Societies’ in Easter Peter, Loek Halman, Ruud de Moor (eds.) – The Individualizing Society: Values Change in Europe and North America, Tilburg University Press, Tilburg, pp. 1-21Authors, Journal of Manufacturing Systems , Vol. 15, No. 6, 1996. pp. 432-442. [3] Myres, D. G. (2010). Social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill. [4] Vuksan, G. (2009). [Attitudes of Adolescents about Gender Roles and Perceived Attitudes


This study aims to describe the role of reproductive, productive and community working of the society of KerengBangkirai and to know the requirement of woman practice and strategic needs in KerengBangkirai. It used qualitative approach with humans as study object. The object of study is the KerengBangkirai society. The result showed that the role of reproductive role became women’s responsibility, either wife/mother or daughter. The role of gender within the community showed the lack of access and women’s control in making important decision. In fact, women are usually missed from village officers’ attention. The women’s practical needs include skills of using fishing gear, child care provider, child room building and others. Then, women’s strategic needs include authority alteration in term of decision-making involvement, equalling job division in domestic sector, women’s involvement in paid toilets as their productive workspace, violence awareness of gender-based and achieving fair access and control.

References Al Kharouf, A., & Al Bdour, T. (2006). Gender roles, which the youth develop within the jordanian family, a field study conducted in Tafilah City. Dirasat Journal, 33 (6), 539–568. Bandura, A. (2002). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Baruch, G. K., & Barnett, R. C. (1986). Fathers Participation in Family Work and Childrens SexRole Attitudes. Child Development, 57 (5), 1210. doi:10.2307/1130444 Bem, S. L. (1983). Gender Schema Theory and Its Implications for Child Development: Raising Gender-Aschematic Children in a

, Heifetz LJ, Ingraham C. Situational shifts in sex role orientation: Correlates of work satisfaction and burnout among women in special education. Sex Roles 1991;25:425-40. Ushasree S, Seshu Reddy BV, Vinolya P. Gender, gender-role, and age effects in teachers' job stress and job satisfaction. Psychol Stud 1995;40:72-6. Kuczyńska A. Psychological Gender Inventory. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego; 1992 [in Polish]. Zalewska A. Job Description Survey — Polish adaptation. Stud Psychol 2001;39:197-217 [in Polish

-Díaz Cristina. 2012. “Gender Portrayals in Food Commercials: A Content Analysis of Spanish Television Advertisements.” Observatorio Journal 6/4:109-126. Kang, M.E. 1997. “The Portrayal of Women's Images in Magazine Advertisements: Goffman's Gender Analysis Revisited.” Sex Roles 37/11-12:979-997. Lacey, N.1998. Image and Representation: Key Concepts in Media Studies . London: Macmillan Press Ltd. Royo, M. Aldas, J. Kuster, I. and Vila, N. 2007. “Adaptation of Marketing Activities to Cultural and Social Context: Gender Role Portrayals and Sexism in Spanish Commercials


The present paper focuses on the nature of women in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s work. There is an obviously divided way of thinking about gender here and we will try to highlight the extremes and the inbetween position, as far as the typology of feminine characters is concerned.


The present article summarizes the findings of a survey among first-year journalism students in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. The survey covers a wide array of subjects including social recruitment, motivation for studying journalism, preferences regarding future journalistic working life, views on the role of journalism in society, attitudes toward the profession, journalistic ideals and ideas about what are the most important traits for journalists. The study reveals significant differences between journalism students in the Nordic countries. The analysis appears to support a ‘nation type’ interpretation of attitudes among journalists, linked to different national traditions, in explaining the differences found. Our results clearly indicate the importance of traditional sociological explanations of behavior for the understanding of journalistic preferences and ambitions. For example, the choice of preferred topics is strongly gendered and appears as the sexual division of labor sublimated into journalistic preferences.


Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D.), and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.). Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..


In this pilot study we explore the mutual conditionality of bargaining power between spouses in the processes of intra-household allocation of resources (care work) and the assignment of their roles in family businesses (paid work) in Vojvodina, Serbia. Our intention is to explain the changes in gender relations in family businesses run by spouses under different socio-economic and institutional conditions, and especially in the context of enforced postsocialist neoliberal transformation after 2009. We formulate a theoretical and methodological framework based on the case of ten firms and check its validity for deeper and wider research into the key causes, forms and characteristics of gender bias in this area.