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Introduction Gay and lesbian youth often face adverse reactions from their environment due to their “sexual minority status” ( Garofalo et al., 1998 ). Sexual minority status is a concept that involves multiple elements: sexual attraction (the genders one is attracted to), behavior (the gender of one’s sexual partners), and identity (label assigned to oneself) ( Savin-Williams & Diamond, 2000 ). Although there are a number of categories included within each element, the present work will focus on sexual attraction, and within that element, gay and lesbian youth
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The plants from Herniaria genus (Caryophyllaceae family) are mainly applied as diuretic agents for the treatment of kidney and gall-stones, gouts, urinary tract infections, hypertension and diabetes. The most widely spread species in Europe is Herniaria glabra L. (HG). Herniaria polygama J.Gay (HP) is found growing from Eastern Europe to Asia. Surprisingly, no work has been reported on the analysis of primary metabolites of HP yet and there is only a limited data on HG. The aim of our study was to establish the monosaccharide composition after a complete hydrolysis and in a free state in the entire herbs of HG and HP harvested in the western and central parts of Ukraine. The carbohydrates were separated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after conversion into volatile derivatives as aldononitrile acetate. As a result, the monosaccharide composition after a total hydrolysis was established with the contribution of the following components: D-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-fucose, D-xylose, D-manose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol, D-dulcitol. In a free state it was detected: D-fructose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol and D-saccharose. The following monosaccharides were found in the most abundant quantities in HG and HP respectively: glucose was determined as the major component – 33.40 and 22.80 mg/g, the second dominant sugar was pinitol – 16.80 and 18.07 mg/g, followed by galactose – 13.88 mg/g in HG and arabinose – 8.13 mg/g in HP. Sugars were determined in these plant species for the first time and this finding shed new light on their pharmacological application.
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The Ethical Duality in Sports: Social and Psychological Aspects of Transgender Participation
Historically the notion about the understanding of women has been patriarchal in nature. The postmodern world has an inclination to redefine social mores. The prevailing thought in the 20th and 21st centuries supports the same thesis. The transformation of attitudes appears to be a regular phenomenon in the understanding of the issue at hand, thereby enlivening the motif of unity between the two. Gender, transgender, sexuality, etc., are in a state of transformation, so that to interpret and reinterpret a state of understanding and re-understanding of the issue of participation in sports has multiple significations. Sport in the 21st century constructs inimitable challenges for trans-athletes. A broad spectrum of identities is included under the umbrella of transgender identity. Transsexual or transitioned athletes may pose the greatest challenge to equity in sex-segregated sport competition. The subject under deliberation has a large number of interpretations, all of which center on a need to ‘deconstruct’ the present structuration of acceptance of sex and gender terminology. There is certainly a need to think and contemplate in broader terms about the meanings that assess the well-defined boundaries between disciplines of research. The present thesis highlights a deconstructive stance.