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. In: Beyer W. N., Meador J. P. (eds). Environmental contaminants in biota: interpreting tissue concentrations. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 563-593. Guitart, R., J. Figueras, R. Mateo, A. Bertolero, S. Cerradelo, A. Martinez-Vilalta, 1994. Lead poisoning in waterfowl from the Ebro delta, Spain: Calculation of lead exposure thresholds for Mallards. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 27, 289-293. Kanstrup, N., 2012. Lead in game birds in Denmark: levels and sources. Danish Academy of Hunting Article, 2, 1, 1-17. Kendall R. J

Abstract

Cryptosporidium infections has been reported in several avian species including chickens, pigeons and game birds where these infections had been identified to cause either enteric or respiratory diseases. However, little data exists on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in ducks, especially those in frequent contact with humans. The aim of this study was to detect the Cryptosporidium species infecting domestic ducks in two major live bird markets. A total of 109 fresh faecal samples were collected from all the ducks available on sale in the two markets. The detection of Cryptosporidium species was conducted by microscopy. All positive samples were confirmed by the nested PCR amplification and the nucleotide sequencing of the 18S rRNA genes. The results demonstrated that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in ducks using microscopy was 11.0 % (12/109). There was a higher prevalence 14.0 % (7/50) in ducks from Ibadan compared with those 8.5 % (5/59) obtained from Oyo town. All positive samples by microscopy were also positive using the nested PCR and the DNA sequencing of the secondary PCR products from the 18S rRNA genes which revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum. This study revealed that natural infections of C. parvum may occur in ducks in close contact with humans and other domestic animals and therefore suggests that cryptosporidiosis in ducks may be of public health importance.

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References Abrar M., Naz S., Ahmad Q.A., Malik K., Tanveer A., Sagheer A., Hussain S., Kausar G., Tabassum S., Altaf M., Iqbal M.A. (2017). Effect of temperature on growth and feed consumption rate of Korean ring necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ). J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 5: 103–106. Barbut S. (2015). Stunning. In: The science of poultry and meat processing. Chapter 8. Canada, pp. 1–26. Blake P.J., Hess J.B. (2009). Feeding Game Birds: Pheasant, Quail, and Partridge. Alabama Cooperative Extension System, ANR-1343, Alabama, USA. Boz M.A., Sarıca M., Yamak U

REFERENCES 1. Kurtenbach K, Peacey M, Rijpkema SG, Hoodless AN, Nuttall PA, Randolph SE: Differential transmission of the genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by game birds and small rodents in England. Appl Environ Microbiol 1998, 64:1169–1174. 2. Margos G, Vollmer SA, Cornet M, Garnier M, Fingerle V, Wilske B, Bormane A, Vitorino L, Collares-Pereira M, Drancourt M, Kurtenbach K: A new Borrelia species defined by multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009, 75:5410-5416. 3. Lissman BA, Bosler EM, Camay H

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nematodes of freshwater fishes of Europe. Academia, Prague [30] Mosgovoy, A. A., Shakhmatova, W. I., Semenova, M. K. (1968): Life cycle of Contracaecum spiculigerum (Ascaridata: Anisakidae), a parasite of domestic and game birds. Trudy Gelmintol. Lab. 19: 129–136 [31] Nnottenkämper, D., Korbel, R., Kösters, J. (1999): The infection of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis L. 1758) with Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in the district of Upper Bavaria (Germany) and the canton St. Gallen (Switzerland). Tierärztl. Prax. Kleintiere, 4: 27 [32] Olsen