Stanislav Yu. Melchakov, Dmitry S. Maltsev, Vladimir A. Volkovich, Leonid F. Yamshchikov, Dmitry G. Lisienko, Aleksandr G. Osipenko and Mikhail A. Rusakov
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Ching-Hwa Lee, Hang-Yi Lin, Elon I. Cadogan, Srinivasa R. Popuri and Chia-Yuan Chang
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Karel Breiter, Nina Gardenová, Viktor Kanický and Tomáš Vaculovič
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Tomáš Kováč, František Horvát, Branislav Hučko, Roland Jančo and Miloš Musil
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Group III-nitrides have been considered as a promising system for semiconductor device applications in blue and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and, just like their highly successful arsenic and phosphorous-based cousins, have been exploited in the infrared (IR), red and green wavelengths [ 1 , 2 ]. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to GaN-based compound semiconductors due to their potential applications in short wavelength (blue and UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes (LDs) and UV-photodetectors  . Gallium nitride
Irma Dervišević, Duško Minić, Milan Kolarević, Željko Kamberović and Mirjana Ristić
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S. Nencheva-Svechtarova, V. Svechtarov, A. Gisbrecht and Tz. Uzunov
The objective of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness of the gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs; 785 nm) and superluminiscent diodes (633 nm) phototherapy (MedX 1100 device) for the treatment of patients with temporomandibular disorders and myofascial pain syndrome. The results demonstrated a positive effect in pain relief. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the level of pain was observed for the temporomandibular joint and for the masseter muscles using paired samples t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. The experimental study on pork muscle samples showed that a) the main part of laser radiation is absorbed by the tissue in thin layer of 3-4 mm, b) in the spectral region 650-950 nm the intensity of light penetration is about 0.2-0.25 percent of the initial light intensity.
Savina Nencheva-Sveshtarova, V. Sveshtarov, Ts. Uzunov and K. Prodanova
The objective of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness of the combined gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs; 785 nm) and superluminiscent diods (SLD; 633 nm) phototherapy (MedX 1100 device) for the treatment of 62 patients with 7 of the most common pain-related temporomandibular disorders with highest sensitivity and specificity according to diagnostic criteria DC/TMD. Using paired samples t-test a positive effect in the pain relief for all tested conditions was demonstrated. The most manifested and statistically significant reduction of pain was found in arthralgia attributed to osteoarthritis and systemic (rheumatoid) arthritis (p = 0.0000001), and disc displacement without reduction with limited opening (p = 0.0000002). Similar levels of pain reduction were found in arthralgia attributed to subluxation, myofascial pain with referral, local myalgia (p values vary between 0.000001 and 0.000284); the lowest values were recorded for myofascial pain (p = 0.001789) and hypermobility-related myalgia (p = 0.018443). The combined laser and SLD phototherapy can be defined as very effective treatment option particularly in pain reduction of internal derangement disorders as well as in some myogenic-related pain conditions affected by TMJ dysfunction.
Vladimír Štrbík, Štefan Beňačka, Štefan Gaži, Vasilij Šmatko, Štefan Chromik, Agáta Dujavová and Ivo Vávra
Effect of Gallium Focused Ion Beam Irradiation on Properties of YBa2Cu3Ox/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 Heterostructures
We present initial investigation of the superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (SFS) heterostructures of nanometer dimensions prepared by the gallium focused ion beam (FIB) technology. The SFS heterostructures were realized on the basis of high-Tc superconducting YBa2Cu3Ox and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films. SFS weak link junctions require dimensions of the weak link connection in the range of nanometer size realizable by FIB patterning. On the other side the gallium focused ion beam might bring about unacceptable degradation of the superconducting as well as ferromagnetic thin film properties. The presented results show that FIB offers a suitable procedure for realization of nanometer size devices but some degradation of the ferromagnetic and superconducting properties was observed. Solution of this problem will be achieved in the next stage of our investigations.
J. H. Gu, Z. Lu, L. Long, Z. Y. Zhong, C. Y. Yang and J. Hou
Highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) transparent thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), four-point probe and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The effect of growth temperature on the structure and optoelectrical properties of the films was investigated. The results demonstrate that high quality GZO films oriented with their crystallographic c-axis perpendicular to the substrates are obtained. The structure and optoelectrical properties of the films are highly dependent on the growth temperature. It is found that with increasing growth temperature, the average visible transmittance of the deposited films is enhanced and the residual stress in the thin films is obviously relaxed. The GZO films deposited at the growth temperature of 400°C, which have the largest grain size (74.3 nm), the lowest electrical resistivity (1.31×10-3 Ω·cm) and the maximum figure of merit (1.46×1O-2Ω-1), exhibit the best optoelectrical properties. Furthermore, the optical properties of the deposited films were determined by the optical characterization methods and the optical energy-gaps were evaluated by extrapolation method. A blue shift of the optical energy gap is observed with an increase in the growth temperature.