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Abstract

The definition of functional meso regions for the territory of the Czech Republic is articulated in this article. Functional regions reflect horizontal interactions in space and are presented as a useful tool for various types of geographical analyses, and also for spatial planning, economic policy designs, etc. This paper attempts to add to the discussion on the need to delineate areal units at different hierarchical levels, and to understand the functional flows and spatial behaviours of the population in a given space. Three agglomerative methods are applied in the paper (the CURDS regionalisation algorithm, Intramax, and cluster analysis), and they have not been used previously in Czech geography for the delineation of functional meso regions. Existing functional regions at the micro-level, based on daily travel-to-work flows from the 2001 census, have served as the building blocks. The analyses have produced five regional systems at the meso level, based on daily labour commuting movements of the population. Basic statistics and a characterisation of these systems are provided in this paper.

Abstract

On a regional scale, two types of polycentricity can be observed. The first involves polycentric metropolitan regions that have evolved in the course of post-suburban development around a previously monocentric city, whereas the second type involves neighbouring metropolises evolving into a multi-core polycentric metropolitan region due to an increase in the functional interaction between each other. The German urban system is characterised by both types of polycentricity. In this paper I examine the role of these two types of polycentricity within the context of globalisation. I address the question of whether individual metropolitan cores and metropolitan cores and their associated post-suburban areas share the global functions of a metropolitan region or whether such functions are concentrated in a single city within the metropolitan region. To this end, I analyse the locations of leading global advanced producer service firms in Germany in their role as sub-nodes of the world city network. Finally, I discuss the empirical findings in the context of modelling the world city network.

, and IL-22 in immunity and autoimmunity. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009; 9:447-53. 8. Tschoeke SK, Oberholzer C, LaFace D, Hutchins B, Moldawer LL, Oberholzer A. Endogenous IL-10 regulates sepsis-induced thymic apoptosis and improves survival in septic IL-10 null mice. Scand J Immunol. 2008; 68:565-71. 9. Duan ZX, Zhu PF, Jiang JX. Sepsis and membrane receptors. Chin J Traumatol. 2005; 8:60-4. 10. Currie RA. Functional interaction between the DNA binding subunit trimerization domain of NF-Y and the high mobility group protein HMG-I(Y). J Biol Chem. 1997; 272:30880-8. 11

References Boner, W., Taylor, E. R., Tsirimonaki, E., Yamane, K., Campo, M. S., Morgan, I. M. 2002. A functional interaction between the human papillomavirus 16 transcription/replication factor E2 and the DNA damage response protein TopBP1. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 22297-22303. Burrows, A. E., Elledge, S. 2008. How ATR turns on: TopBP1 goes on ATRIP with ATR. Genes Dev. 22: 1416-1421. Cimprich, K. A., Cortez, D. 2008. ATR: an essential regulator of genome integrity. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9: 616-627. Delacroix, S., Wagner, J. M., Kobayashi, M., Yamamoto, K. I

, Laron Z. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 deficiency or administration on the occurrence of acne. J Eur Acad Dermatol. 2011;25:950-954. 18. Liu B, Lee HY, Weinzimer SA et al. Direct functional interaction between insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and retinoid X receptor-alpha regulate transcriptional signaling and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33607-33613. 19. Vora S, Ovhal A, Jerajani H, Nair N, Chakrabortty A. Correlation of facial sebum to serum insulin-like growth factor-1 in patients with acne. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:990-991. 20. Pappas A

and OCTN genes polymorphisms in children with inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2007; 8:1221-9. 31. Linderson Y, Bresso F, Buentke E, Pettersson S, D'Amato M. Functional interaction of CARD15/NOD2 and Crohn’s diseaseassociated TNFalpha-beta polymorphisms. Int J Colorect Dis. 2005;4:305-11. 32. Leong RW, Armuzzi A, Ahmad T, Wong ML, Tse P, Jewell DP. NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphisms and Crohn’s disease in the Chinese population. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003; 17: 1465-70 33. Cukovic-Cavka S, Vermeire S, Hrstic I, Claessens G, Kolacek S, Jakic

network where the intensity of the edges reflected the strength of the interaction score. Finally, the functional interactions between genes that belongs to the chosen GO BP terms were investigated by the REACTOME FIViz application to the Cytoscape 3.6.0 software. The ReactomeFIViz app is designed to find pathways and network patterns related to cancer and other types of diseases. This app accesses the pathways stored in the Reactome database, allowing to perform pathway enrichment analysis for a set of genes, visualize hit pathways using manually laid-out pathway

network where the intensity of the edges reflected the strength of the interaction score. Finally, the functional interactions between genes that belongs to the chosen GO BP terms were investigated by the REACTOME FIViz application to the Cytoscape 3.6.0 software. The ReactomeFIViz app is designed to find pathways and network patterns related to cancer and other types of diseases. This app accesses the pathways stored in the Reactome database, allowing to perform pathway enrichment analysis for a set of genes, visualize hit pathways using manually laid-out pathway

interaction prediction. The search criteria were based on co-occurrences of genes/proteins in scientific texts (text mining), co-expression, and experimentally observed interactions. The results of such analyses generated a gene/protein interaction network where the intensity of the edges reflected the strength of the interaction score. Finally, the functional interactions between genes that belongs to the chosen GO BP terms were investigated by the REACTOME FIViz application to the Cytoscape 3.6.0 software. The ReactomeFIViz app is designed to find pathways and network

interaction prediction. The search criteria were based on co-occurrences of genes/proteins in scientific texts (text mining), co-expression, and experimentally observed interactions. The results of such analyses generated a gene/protein interaction network where the intensity of the edges reflected the strength of the interaction score. Finally, the functional interaction between genes that belong to the chosen GO BP terms were investigated with the REACTOME FIViz application to the Cytoscape 3.7.2 software. The ReactomeFIViz app is designed to find pathways and network