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substances, humic acids, and fulvic acids extracted from sod-podzolic soils. Moscow Univ. Soil Sci. Bull., 65, 2010, 155-158. KULIKOVA, N.A., PERMINOVA, I.V.: A comparative study of elemental composition of water-soluble humic substances, humic acids, and fulvic acids extracted from sod-podzolic soils. Moscow Univ. Soil Sci. Bull., 65, 2010, 151-154. LAL, R.: Physical properties and moisture retention characteristics of some Nigerian soils. Geoderma, 21, 1979, 209-223. LEENHER, J.A.: Comprehensive approach to preparative isolation and fractionation of dissolved organic


Soil environment characteristics naturally affect the biogeographical classification of forests in central Europe. However, even on the same localities, different systems of vegetation classification de-scribe the forest types according to the naturally dominant tree species with different accuracy. A set of 20 representative natural beech stands in the borderland between the Bohemian Massif (Hercyni-an biogeographical subprovince) and the Outer Western Carpathians (Westcarpathian subprovince) was selected in order to compare textural, hydrostatic, physico-chemical and chemical properties of soils between the included geomorphological regions, bioregions and biotopes. Differences in the soils of the surveyed beech stands were mainly due to volume weight and specific weight, maximum capillary capacity (MCC), porosity, base saturation (BS), total soil nitrogen (Nt) and fulvic acids. Specifics in the relations between these soil characteristics indicated that transient trans-Hercynian beech forests developed in the borderland between the two compared subprovinces. Soils of the investigated Hercynian beech forests were generally characterized by lower BS and lower Nt. Soils of the trans-Hercynian beech forests were more similar to the Carpathian beech forest soils than soils in the other Hercynian beech forests. Soils of the trans-Hercynian and Carpathian beech forests showed similarly higher BS, deeper occurrence of humic substances, lower specific weight and also higher MCC. Higher content of humic substances as well as MCC indicated an equal effect on forest ecology, which may contribute to more accurate classification of forests.


Quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) is very important from view point of sustainable agriculture; therefore, during the years 1994–2011, the influence of different soil management practices on changes in SOM parameters in loamy Haplic Luvisol was evaluated in a field experiment in the locality of Dolná Malanta. The field experiment included two types of soil tillage – (1) conventional tillage (CT) and (2) reduced tillage (RT) – and also two treatments of fertilisation – (1) crop residues together with added NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) fertilisers (CR + NPK) and (2) added NPK fertilisers. Contents of humic substances (HS) and fulvic acids (FA) under RT increased by 1.6% and 4.4%, respectively, compared to CT during the years 1994–2011. On the other hand, contents of humic acids (HA), HA-to-FA ratios, colour quotient of HS and colour quotient of HA under CT increased by 2.0%, 2.5%, 1.8% and 2.3%, respectively, compared to RT. In CT and RT, HS declined at an average speed of 0.33% and 0.53% per year, respectively. In CR + NPK treatments and application, only NPK fertiliser caused a decline of HS at an average speed of 0.52% and 0.33 % per year, respectively. In CT, RT and CR + NPK treatments, the linear trends (statistical significant) in decline of FA were observed. All in all, the CT had a slightly better effect on the quality of SOM, whilst the stability of SOM was improved by RT. Applications of mineral fertilisers along with crop residues resulted in better quality but lower stability of SOM.

Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering , 4, 1, p. 105-110. LIU, X.; RYAN, D.K. (1997): Analysis of Fulvic acids using HPLC/UV coupled to FT.IR Spectroscopy. Environmental Technology , 18. p 417-424. NAIDJA, A.; HUANG, P.M.; ANDERSON, W.; KESSEL, C. (2002): Fourier Transform Infrared, UV-Visible, and X-ray Diffraction Analyses of Organic Matter in Humin, Humic Acid, and Fulvic Acid Fractions in Soil Exposed to Elevated CO 2 and N Fertilization. Applied Spectroscopy , 56, 3. PARIS, O.; ZOLLFRANK, C.; ZICKLER, G.A. (2005): Decomposition and carbonisation of wood

., Podolak, M., & Engel, G. (2006). The influence of tin compounds on the dynamic properties of liposome membranes: A study using the ESR method. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett ., 11 , 56–61. 14. Man, D., Pisarek, I., Braczkowski, M., Pytel, B., & Olchawa, R. (2014). The impact of humic and fulvic acids on the dynamic properties of liposome membranes: the ESR method. J. Liposome Res ., 24 (2), 106–112. 15. Soil Taxonomy. (1999). A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Survey Staff . USDA-NRCS: US Gort. Printing Office, Washington

rejonie Łomżyńskim. Rocz. Gleb. 52, supl.: 41-48. DZIADOWIEC H., GONET S.S., 1999. Przewodnik metodyczny do badań materii organicznej gleb. Prace Komisji Naukowych PTG 120,Warszawa. GONDAR D., LOPEZ R., FIOL S, ANTELO J.M., ARCE F. 2006. Cadmium, lead, and copper binding to humic acid and fulvic acid extracted from an ombrotrophic peat bog. Geoderma 135: 196-203. HE X. T., LOGAN T. L., TRAINA S. J., 1995. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Selected U.S. Municipal Solid Waste Composts. J. Environ. Qual. 24: 543-552. HSU J. H., LO S. L., 2001. Effect of


Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars grown for industrial use have recently emerged as a sustainable alternative source of industrial fibre and bioenergy, and is a highly valuable food and animal feed resource. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vermicompost extract, vermicompost mineral nutrient composition, and vermicompost-derived humic and fulvic acids on seed germination and growth of hemp seedlings. In general, separate application of all vermicompost components stimulated seed germination and hypocotyl and radicle growth, as well as increased chlorophyll concentration in cotyledons. Effective concentration range and the degree of stimulation varied significantly between the treatments. For practical purposes, application of vermicompost and vermicompost-derived extracts for stimulation of hemp growth could be useful at concentrations 5%, 0.05 mg·mL−1 and 1%, for vermicompost extract, humic acids and fulvic acids, respectively.


The aim of this article is to establish how land use change influences soil organic matter content in the loess landscape. The research was conducted near Krasnystaw in the Lublin Upland, in forest, on arable land and on abandoned lands at various stages of secondary succession.

During the field research, samples were collected from the upper soil layer and analyzed for organic carbon content, fractional composition of humus compounds and soil reaction. The results obtained indicate that the impact of land use change manifests itself in a change of the soil reaction, which turns from neutral or slightly acid into acid. The tillage system reduces organic matter in the soil and increases the humic acids ratio, whereas abandonment of the land causes an evident increase in the soil’s organic matter content and the fulvic acids ratio. These results allow us to state that land use change has a rapid impact on the geochemical properties of the landscape (which can be noticed as soon as 5 years after the land is abandoned).


Chemical pollution of anthropogenic origin such as heavy metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls are some of serious threats to the environment. Their main sources are industry, transport, and agriculture. Chemical substances pollute the air, water and soil, where ultimately most of them reach and accumulate.

Soil constituent involved in the adsorption of impurities is organic matter (OM), the structure of which can be divided into three fractions: humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (H). The impact of pollution with OM allows the presence of active functional groups, among others, -OH, -COOH, -NH3, -OCH3. Strongly adsorbed contaminants are not available for soil microorganisms.


Dissimilation of soil humus in 7 typical forests with pure stands in the semiarid windy region of the Loess Plateau in China was investigated. In addition, its relationships with other bio-chemical characteristics were assessed by canonical correlation analysis. The results was as follows: (1) Pinus tabuliformis Carrière forest had the lowest humus content and the worst stability among 7 forests with pure stands; Populus simonii Carrière forest had low humus content and worse stability; Robinia pseudoacacia L. forest had moderate humus content but the best stability; Salix matsudana Koidz. forest had moderate humus content and bad stability; Hippophae rhamnoides L. forest had high humus content and the best stability; Caragana microphylla Lam. forest had high humus content and moderate stability; Amorpha fruticosa L. forest had the highest humus content and benign stability; (2) Large microbial biomass and sufficient available P would accelerate the formation of humic acid and fulvic acid, respectively. High available N, P and Fe contents and high urease and protease activity were conducive to increase the humus stability. The particularity of community environment and litter properties of pure stands were identified as the key reasons for the humus dissimilation, thus mixed-reformation or establishing ground vegetation would be feasible ways to improve humus properties in forest with pure stands.