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Natural Organic Matter in Ecosystems - a Review

-720. KULIKOV, N.A., PERMINOVA, I.V.: A comparative study of molecular weight distribution of water-soluble humic substances, humic acids, and fulvic acids extracted from sod-podzolic soils. Moscow Univ. Soil Sci. Bull., 65, 2010, 155-158. KULIKOVA, N.A., PERMINOVA, I.V.: A comparative study of elemental composition of water-soluble humic substances, humic acids, and fulvic acids extracted from sod-podzolic soils. Moscow Univ. Soil Sci. Bull., 65, 2010, 151-154. LAL, R.: Physical properties and moisture retention characteristics of some

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Soil Heterogeneity Reflected in Biogeography of Beech Forests in the Borderland Between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians

Abstract

Soil environment characteristics naturally affect the biogeographical classification of forests in central Europe. However, even on the same localities, different systems of vegetation classification de-scribe the forest types according to the naturally dominant tree species with different accuracy. A set of 20 representative natural beech stands in the borderland between the Bohemian Massif (Hercyni-an biogeographical subprovince) and the Outer Western Carpathians (Westcarpathian subprovince) was selected in order to compare textural, hydrostatic, physico-chemical and chemical properties of soils between the included geomorphological regions, bioregions and biotopes. Differences in the soils of the surveyed beech stands were mainly due to volume weight and specific weight, maximum capillary capacity (MCC), porosity, base saturation (BS), total soil nitrogen (Nt) and fulvic acids. Specifics in the relations between these soil characteristics indicated that transient trans-Hercynian beech forests developed in the borderland between the two compared subprovinces. Soils of the investigated Hercynian beech forests were generally characterized by lower BS and lower Nt. Soils of the trans-Hercynian beech forests were more similar to the Carpathian beech forest soils than soils in the other Hercynian beech forests. Soils of the trans-Hercynian and Carpathian beech forests showed similarly higher BS, deeper occurrence of humic substances, lower specific weight and also higher MCC. Higher content of humic substances as well as MCC indicated an equal effect on forest ecology, which may contribute to more accurate classification of forests.

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Changes in Soil Organic Matter Parameters during the Period of 18 Years Under Different Soil Management Practices

Abstract

Quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) is very important from view point of sustainable agriculture; therefore, during the years 1994–2011, the influence of different soil management practices on changes in SOM parameters in loamy Haplic Luvisol was evaluated in a field experiment in the locality of Dolná Malanta. The field experiment included two types of soil tillage – (1) conventional tillage (CT) and (2) reduced tillage (RT) – and also two treatments of fertilisation – (1) crop residues together with added NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) fertilisers (CR + NPK) and (2) added NPK fertilisers. Contents of humic substances (HS) and fulvic acids (FA) under RT increased by 1.6% and 4.4%, respectively, compared to CT during the years 1994–2011. On the other hand, contents of humic acids (HA), HA-to-FA ratios, colour quotient of HS and colour quotient of HA under CT increased by 2.0%, 2.5%, 1.8% and 2.3%, respectively, compared to RT. In CT and RT, HS declined at an average speed of 0.33% and 0.53% per year, respectively. In CR + NPK treatments and application, only NPK fertiliser caused a decline of HS at an average speed of 0.52% and 0.33 % per year, respectively. In CT, RT and CR + NPK treatments, the linear trends (statistical significant) in decline of FA were observed. All in all, the CT had a slightly better effect on the quality of SOM, whilst the stability of SOM was improved by RT. Applications of mineral fertilisers along with crop residues resulted in better quality but lower stability of SOM.

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Changes in Structure and Content Humic Substances in Soil During the Laboratory Simulated Fires

–718. LARIDE, W.A. (2015): Infrared Spectra of Humic Acid and Metal Humates Precipitated from Groundwater. Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering , 4, 1, p. 105-110. LIU, X.; RYAN, D.K. (1997): Analysis of Fulvic acids using HPLC/UV coupled to FT.IR Spectroscopy. Environmental Technology , 18. p 417-424. NAIDJA, A.; HUANG, P.M.; ANDERSON, W.; KESSEL, C. (2002): Fourier Transform Infrared, UV-Visible, and X-ray Diffraction Analyses of Organic Matter in Humin, Humic Acid, and Fulvic Acid Fractions in Soil Exposed to Elevated CO 2 and N Fertilization

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Humus Substances of Forest Phaeozems and Gleysols in Dolina Baryczy Landscape Park

Związki Próchniczne Czarnych Ziem Leśnych w Parku Krajobrazowym "Dolina Baryczy"

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Impact of humic acids on EYL liposome membranes: ESR method

. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol ., 26 (4), 162–167. 13. Man, D., Podolak, M., & Engel, G. (2006). The influence of tin compounds on the dynamic properties of liposome membranes: A study using the ESR method. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett ., 11 , 56–61. 14. Man, D., Pisarek, I., Braczkowski, M., Pytel, B., & Olchawa, R. (2014). The impact of humic and fulvic acids on the dynamic properties of liposome membranes: the ESR method. J. Liposome Res ., 24 (2), 106–112. 15. Soil Taxonomy. (1999). A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting

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Carbon and lead fractions in the soil on the margins of peatmoors / Frakcje węgla i ołowiu w glebach z obrzeża torfowiska

W., 2001. Niektóre właściwości gleb żelazowych w rejonie Łomżyńskim. Rocz. Gleb. 52, supl.: 41-48. DZIADOWIEC H., GONET S.S., 1999. Przewodnik metodyczny do badań materii organicznej gleb. Prace Komisji Naukowych PTG 120,Warszawa. GONDAR D., LOPEZ R., FIOL S, ANTELO J.M., ARCE F. 2006. Cadmium, lead, and copper binding to humic acid and fulvic acid extracted from an ombrotrophic peat bog. Geoderma 135: 196-203. HE X. T., LOGAN T. L., TRAINA S. J., 1995. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Selected U.S. Municipal Solid Waste Composts

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Biochar changes in soil based on quantitative and qualitative humus compounds parameters

conocarpus wastes. Bioresource Technology 131: 374–379. Bastida F., Zsolnay A., Hernandez T., Garcia C., 2008. Past, present and future of soil quality indices: a biological perspective. Geoderma 147: 159–171. Baglieri A., Ioppolo A., Nčgre M., Gennari M., 2007. A method for isolating soil organic matter after the extraction of humic and fulvic acids. Organic Geochemistry 38: 140–150. Cheah S., Malone S.C., Feik C.J., 2014. Speciation of sulfur in biochar produced from pyrolysis and gasification of oak and corn stover. Environmental Science and Technology

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Effect of Vermicompost Extract and Vermicompost-Derived Humic Acids on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Hemp

Abstract

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars grown for industrial use have recently emerged as a sustainable alternative source of industrial fibre and bioenergy, and is a highly valuable food and animal feed resource. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vermicompost extract, vermicompost mineral nutrient composition, and vermicompost-derived humic and fulvic acids on seed germination and growth of hemp seedlings. In general, separate application of all vermicompost components stimulated seed germination and hypocotyl and radicle growth, as well as increased chlorophyll concentration in cotyledons. Effective concentration range and the degree of stimulation varied significantly between the treatments. For practical purposes, application of vermicompost and vermicompost-derived extracts for stimulation of hemp growth could be useful at concentrations 5%, 0.05 mg·mL−1 and 1%, for vermicompost extract, humic acids and fulvic acids, respectively.

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Humus Substances and Soil Structure

Abstract

In this study, the soil structure of two soil types (Haplic Chernozems and Eutric Fluvisols) in four ecosystems (forest, meadow, urban and agro-ecosystem) with dependence on humus substances were compared. The stability of dry-sieved and waterresistant macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates with a dependence on the proportion of humus substance fractions was determined. Quantity of humus substances influenced mainly water-resistant aggregates. A positive correlation was recorded between size fraction of 2.3 mm and contents of humus substances (P < 0.01; r = +0.710) and fulvic acids (P < 0.05; r = +0.634), and negative correlation between size fraction of 0.5.1 mm and contents of humus substances (P < 0.05; r = -0.613) and fulvic acids (P < 0.01; r = -0.711). Humic acids influenced mainly the formation of dry-sieved aggregates and fulvic acids played an important role in micro-aggregate formation. The quality of humus substances influenced more intensively the formation of dry-sieved aggregates. There were positive correlations between optical parameters of humus substances and humic acids and larger dry-sieved aggregates (3.7 mm) and negative correlations with smaller (0.5.3 mm). The highest proportions of larger size of water-resistant aggregates (1. 20 mm) were in forest ecosystem, but smaller (0.25.1 mm) agreggates were dominated in agro-ecosystem.

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