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-resistant apple cultivars grafted on three dwarfing rootstocks in integrated production. J. FRUIT ORNAM. PLANT RES. 13: 19-23. Czynczyk A., Mika A., Bielicki P., Krawiec A. 2008. Suitability evolution of several apple cultivars for organic fruit production. J. FRUIT ORNAM. PLANT RES. 16: 7-15. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P., Mika A., Krawiec A. 2011. A nine-year evaluation of several scab-resistant apple cultivars for organic fruit production. J. FRUIT ORNAM. PLANT RES. 19(2) 2011: 87-97. Fisher M., Fischer Ch. 2004. Genetic resource sass basis for new resistant apple cultivar. J

): Do we need flower stimulation in seed orchards? In: LINDGREN, D. (Ed.). Proceedings of a Seed Orchard Conference, Umeå, 26-28 September, 2007. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå. pp. 37-42. COCKERHAM, C. C. (1967): Group inbreeding and coancestry. Genetics 56: 89-104. DABRAL, S. L. and P. W. AMIN (1975): Poor fruit formation in teak in Chanda forests of Maharashtra. Indian Forester 101: 616-620. EGENTI, L. C. (1981): Aspect of pollination ecology of teak (Tectona grandis Linn.f.) in Nigeria: Pollinators and fruit production. In Proc. Symposium on


Within the sector of fruit growing, climate change related tasks cover a rather wide range of activities. According to what is claimed by the literature, all decisions impacting the sector should be made conformably with climate change in order to advance an increase in yield security. This, regardless of the impacts of climate change, is also one of the key questions in fruit growing. Regarding protection against extreme weather events, in addition to technological and technical elements, the level of importance assumed by farmers for the above-mentioned protection techniques as well as the type and extent they intend to use in practice are also worth of studying. This ongoing research began in 2009 and focuses mainly on studying the opinions of fruit farmers making up the target group for this analysis. The questionnaire survey primarily intends to study their knowledge on the definition of climate change as reactivity to unfavourable weather events occurring in the growing. Additionally, we tried to get answers to the following questions: Do the studied human factors (age, educational level, sex etc.) of growers determine the extension of innovation of fruit production?


In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940). The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a result of research by the Institute of Horticulture: 1) new local breeding fruit crop cultivars were obtained and recommended for commercial orchards; variety testing including growing technologies was initiated in different regions of Latvia; 2) monitoring of harmful and favourable organisms was conducted in plantations, with development of a system for prognosis and control; and 3) research results were transferred to growers through practical recommendations, publications, seminars and demonstrations.


The allergic reactions to fruits are lesser known among food sensitivities. The most common fruits belonging to the Rosaceae family that might cause allergic reactions are apples, pears and peaches. However, little is known about the potential allergic reactions caused by another member of the Rosaceae, the cherry. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of any allergic reaction or food hypersensitivity resulting from topical application and chronic oral administration of cherry fruits. The cherry fruits ‘Sabina’ cv. were produced in the orchard in Dąbrowice according to the principles of integrated (IFP) and organic (OR) productions. Fruits of ‘Debreceni Bötermö’ cv. were produced in Dąbrowice (IFP), and in the orchard in Nowy Dwór (OR). The experiments were performed on 65 outbred young, adult, white albinotic guinea pigs (Dankin Hartley). Three procedures were applied: I. Guinea-Pig Maximization Test (GPMT); II. Chronic administration of fruits and III. Skin prick (Dreborg) test. The skin reactions based on GPMT or Dreborg tests revealed no differences between the two cherry cultivars ‘Sabina’ and ‘Debreceni’ obtained from integrated or organic production. Similarly, it was not observed of any effect of cultivars of cherries nor the type of fruits production on the guinea pig skin reaction as a result of chronic feeding with fruits.

, hemi parasites and fruit production in two nontimber forest tree species in south India. – Forest Ecology and Management, 168, 289–300. Stanescu, M. 2013. Dogwood anthracnose caused by Discula destructiva on Cornus spp. in Canada. MSc. thesis, Faculty of Natural Resources, The University of Guelph. Stoian, D. 2005. Making the better of two worlds: Rural and peri-urban livelihood options sustained by non-timber forest products from the Bolivian Amazon. – World Development, 33, 1473–1490. The Global Forest Resources Assessment. 2010. Food and Agriculture

European Union. Zeszyty Naukowe SGGW w Warszawie. Problemy Rolnictwa Światowego 13(28) 4: 156-161. Skórnicki H., 1998. Restrukturyzacja produkcji sadowniczej w regionie grójecko-wareckim (Restructuring of fruit production the Grójec-Warka region). III Ogólnopolskie Spotkanie Sadowników w Grójcu. Instytut Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa, Skierniewice: 96-101. Skórnicki H., 2003. SAPARD dla sadowników (SAPARD for fruit growers). VIII Ogólnopolskie Spotkanie Sadowników w Grójcu - Nowoczesne sady szansą dla polskich sadowników w Unii Europejskiej. Instytut Sadownictwa i


Research was carried out in northern Europe (Russia) with the purpose of assessing the yield, quality, biologically active compounds and elemental composition of Physalis angulata and Physalis pubescens fruits. P. angulata cultivars ‘Konditer’ and ‘Konditer 2’ gave the highest yield and mean fruit weight (11.2 t ha−1 and 75 g, on average), whereas P. pubescens variety Zolotaya Rossip had the worst outcome as it produced the smallest berries (3 g). ‘Zolotaya Rossip’ fruits attained the highest values of dry matter and soluble solids, while ‘Violet’ and ‘Korolek’ the highest polyphenol and ascorbic acid concentrations, respectively. Organic acid composition of Physalis fruits revealed high varietal differences and predominant accumulation of tartaric and malic acids. Positive correlations were recorded between dry matter and polyphenols, as well as between Fe and Mn, but an adverse correlation between Si and Cd content. Physalis fruits showed to be a good source of beneficial compounds for human beings, such as polyphenols and ascorbic acid, as well as mineral nutrients, i.e. K, Mg, P, B, Co, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Si, V and Zn.

optimum harvest date and storability of two apple cultivars. Proc. Int. Conf. Fruit Production and Fruit Breeding, 12-13 September, Tartu, Estonia: 72-75. Łysiak, G., 2011. The determination of harvest index of Šampion apples intended for long storage. Acta Sci. Pol. - Hortorum Cultus 10(3): 273-282. Mclellan, M.R., Lind, L.R., Kime, R.W., 1995. Hue angle determinations and statistical analysis for multiquadrant Hunter L, a, b data. J. Food Quality 18: 235-240. Meredith, F.I., Robertson, J.A., Horvat, R.J., 1989. Changes in ethylene rate and ground color in peaches (cv

References Ascard J., Håkansson B., Hansson A., Stridh H., Söderlind M. 2010. Cost price calculation for organically and conventionally grown apples in Sweden, SLU Alnarp, 2010 Online at: _Ascard_B_Hakansson_A_Hansson- _et_al_S304bis312.pdf. Brzozowski P., Zmarlicki K. 2010. Economics of organic apple and strawberry production in Poland in the years 2007-2009. J. FRUIT ORNAM. PLANT RES. 18(2): 255-264. Firth Ch. 2005. Economics of organic top fruit production (OF0305). The Initiative on Organic Research (IOR), Henry Doubleday