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Lenka Malyjurkova, Marketa Hejzlarova, Pavla Junkova Vymyslicka and Karolina Brandlova
Giraffe social behaviour and relationships are currently in the period of scientific renaissance, changing the former ideas of nonexisting social bonds into understanding of complex social structures of giraffe herds. Different giraffe subspecies have been studied in the wild and only one was subject of detailed study in captivity. Our study focused on the neglected Cape giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa). We investigated the social preferences of 28 introduced giraffes in semi-captivity in Bandia reserve, Senegal. Our aim was to assess the group size of Cape giraffes outside their native range and describe their social relationships. Mean group size in Bandia was 7.22 ± 4.06 (range 2-17). The dyads were classified according to strength of relationship (weak, medium, strong) using the association index. We reported weak and medium relationships in all types of dyads except female-juvenile. The strongest bond was found in mother-calf dyads. Three of 21 possible female dyads also demonstrated strong relationships. Those three dyads included six of seven adult females, which we labelled as friends. Females associated more frequently with calves of their friends then with calves of non-friend females. The strength of the relationship between calves depended on the strength of relationship between their mothers. We concluded that Cape giraffes in new environment have shown similar group size and nonrandom preference for conspecifics as shown in wild and captive studies. The research was supported by CIGA 20135010, CIGA 2134217, IGA FTZ 20135123, ESF/MŠMT CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0040.
The Emotional Rhetoric of Norwegian and Danish Municipal Websites
Maria Isaksson and Poul Erik Flyvholm Jørgensen
Friendship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Wesley Shrum, Antony Palackal, Dan-Bright S. Dzorgbo, Paul Mbatia, Mark Schafer, Paige Miller and Heather Rackin
Has the size of personal networks changed since the invention of the Internet? We use a unique longitudinal survey during the primary period of Internet diffusion in Africa and Asia to address three questions. First, has the overall size of professional networks changed? Second, has there been a shift in the kinds of relationships people maintain? Third, are there identifiable patterns in the nature of the shifts over time? We analyze data on nine professional linkages reported by a population of scientists and educators in Kenya, Ghana, and the Indian State of Kerala over a sixteen year period (1994-2010). Results show that extended personal networks experienced a dramatic decline during the initial diffusion of new communication technologies, followed by partial recovery. An increase in collaboration has been accompanied by a decline in friendship.
Strategies of Friending, Disclosure and Privacy on Facebook
Jakob Linaa Jensen and Anne Scott Sørensen
In the present article, we discuss norms of friendship and privacy on social network sites by examining strategies of privacy among users, arguing that tacit norms of friendship are now more easily observed. The article is based on a quantitative survey among 1710 Internet users in Denmark, among them 970 Facebook users, subsequent focus group meetings with 20 respondents and finally access to their profiles for a period of twelve months. In line with the research literature on social network sites, our study shows that users’ “friends” consist of a variety of strong, weak and even latent ties and thus supports notions such as social divergence and networked publics, suggested by danah boyd. Regarding privacy issues, we distinguish between level of access to information on participants’ profiles and the way participants perform on their profiles, the level of intimacy. As to the first level most respondents seem to emphasize whom they friend, while they do not distinguish among friends once they are in; everybody is treated equally. As to the second level, our research deviates from findings suggesting that in particular young people are rather unaware of risks, as we can identify what we call a “cautious sensible” strategy in all age groups that allows users to be cautious without being too self-restrictive. Regarding the status updates, we identify a schism between saying and doing, as our respondents tend to downgrade small talk in the focus groups, whereas their profiles reveal that they in fact do engage in small talk. We understand this seeming paradox in a generic and linguistic perspective, using the notions of phatic and indexical communication, respectively, in an analysis of the status updates on the profiles.