Twenty-three new Romanian table grapes varieties were analysed for their phenological behaviour, quantitative characteristics (bunch weight, berry weight, their length and width, grape yield), sugar accumulation, titratable acidity, and ºBrix / acid ratio during three consecutive years (2015-2017). The higher temperatures recorded during the study period determined an advance in the development of the main phenophases, especially the grapes’ harvest maturity. Absolute minimum temperatures during winter, damaging the vine, have significantly affected grape yield. As a consequence of earlier phenology and lower yields due to frost damage, harvest was advanced between 2 and 4 weeks than the average. The results obtained in this study favoured five remarkable genotypes for their very good quality of grape (‘Victoria’, ‘Tamina’, ‘Xenia’, ‘Napoca’ and ‘Augusta’). These varieties are distinguished by the highest values for bunch and berry weight (between 300-500 g and 5.5-8.4 g, respectively), berries’ size uniformity, the sugar content between 15.45-21.53 ºBrix and balanced ºBrix / acid ratio. Lately, the high temperatures during the grape maturation period have led to increased accumulations of sugar in berries, to reduced acidity, which affects the sugar-acidity balance; a more careful choice of grape harvest time is needed.
Adam Takač, Vukašin Popović, Janko Červenski, Svetlana Glogovac and Slađana Medić-Pap
Dunavski rubin is a medium early indeterminate cultivar with large fruits and average fruit weight of 180 g. It was developed by crossing cultivars Korona and Saint Pierre. Hybrid material was grown by using the pedigree method. Phenotypically uniform line V9 was selected and submitted to the Varietal Release Committee of the Republic of Serbia. Cultivar was released in 2014 by the Decision of Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia under no. 320-04-1871/2/2013-11. Dunavski rubin represents successful combination of genes responsible for high fertility rate and fruit quality. Fruits of Dunavski rubin cultivar have high percentage of dry matter (6.30%), high level of lycopene (106.7 mg/100 g), and excellent total acidity (0.39%). Vitamin C content is 52.7 mg/100 g, while total sugars amount to 5.71%. High K content (1520 mg/kg) and low Na content (79.8 mg/kg) is what distinguishes this cultivar from the others. Comparing with other cultivars trough three year field experiments, it was concluded that Dunavski rubin is a cultivar intended for fresh consumption due to a long fruit-bearing period, but is also an excellent raw material for processing due to its high quality fruit. All of the above mentioned classifies Dunavski rubin as an enhancer in technological processing of tomato.
Currently, the blueberry crop systems are continuous diversifing due to the growing demand for fruit on the market as well as the willingness of farmers to invest in profitable blueberries business. The need to extend the fresh-consumption period of blueberry fruits has made crop protection systems be considered appropriate for high-quality and valuable fruits. In the present work, we have proposed to compare the economic efficiency of three blueberry production systems as follows: the normal intensive cultural system in beds, the superintensive cultural system in pots and the superintensive cultural system in pots and plastic covered (high tunnel). The analyze of the cost and profitability of blueberry has been done according to the crop system, taking into consideration several elements such as: the number of plants per hectare, the total duration of the exploitation, the value of the investment, the yield and the cost of production etc. Further more, considering the average sale price of the blueberry fruits in Romania, we have calculated the net annual return, the annual return rate, the cost recovery period, total operating profit, economic return on investment, and average return on investment. We observed that as much the degree of intensification has increased, the value of investment was higher and the spendings has increased too. Blueberry pot production systems with or without plastic protection are especially recommended for smaller surfaces, which in this way can boost the value and their economic potential.
Plums have been commercially grown in Latvia since the 19th century. Plantations expanded especially in the 1920s–1930s. At that time, many cultivars were introduced, mostly from Western Europe. After the severe winters of 1939/40, 1941/42, 1955/56, and 1978/79, the plum orchard area significantly decreased because of a lack of winter-hardy cultivars. For this reason, cultivars from Russia, Belarus, and Estonia were introduced. Among the old landraces, highly winter-hardy ‘Latvijas Dzeltenā Olplūme’ is still important. Previously it used to be productive and had good fruit quality. Unfortunately, nurseries often propagated the hardiest clones, which lacked productivity. As Latvian consumers love yellow plums, at present breeding and propagation of productive clones from old orchards is ongoing. In the mid-20th century, active plum breeding started in Latvia, crossing hardy genotypes with high quality donors. From this period ‘Lāse’ and ‘Minjona’ are still grown. Since the 1980s, plum breeding has been undedrtaken at the Institute of Horticulture. The crossing work in plums concentrated on the hexaploid group, aiming to combine large fruit size with good flavour, different time of ripening (in particular, early to medium late) and and good winter-hardiness. New cultivars include ‘Sonora’, ‘Ance’, and ‘Adelyn’, which have good quality, and productivity 20–30 kg per tree, and in some years up to 70 kg per tree.
The most widely used rootstocks are seedlings of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. ssp. divaricata C.K. Schneid., which is more hardy that the common myrobalan plum. These rootstocks have good compatibility with most cultivars except gages, and are adapted to different soil types and are disease tolerant. Their drawback is a long growth season which reduces winter-hardiness of grafted cultivars. Also, they tend to form suckers around the stem. A hardy seedling PU-20651 (P. salicina ssp. ussuriensis × P. cerasifera) was bred at the Institute, which was shown to slightly reduce tree vigour. Testing of several Western European and Russian rootstocks did not result in their introduction into production. Trials are presently being carried out with size-reducing root-stocks originated from cultivar Wangenheim VVA-1, Weiwa, S766, and M633.
Commercial production of plums in Latvia is relatively small, as the area of orchards is the smallest among fruit trees. Plums are grown mostly for fresh consumption, with a small part for jams, yoghurt, and ice-cream additives. Fruits are sold mostly in small shops, markets and at farms. The main reason is the climate, which allows growing of a limited range of cultivars that tolerate the –30 °C winter temperatures in some years (about every five years). About 20 cultivars are grown commercially; the share of the six most popular plum cultivars is 69% of the total plum production. In recent years, plantations of new cultivars developed at our Institute have expanded, especially regarding the early ripening cultivar ‘Ance’.
Juozas Lanauskas, Darius Kviklys, Nobertas Uselis and Loreta Buskienė
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Katarzyna Kowalczyk, Janina Gajc-Wolska and M. Marcinkowska
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Māra Dūma, Ina Alsiņa, Laila Dubova and Ieva Erdberga
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