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References Adamczyk W. 1994. Rezerwat biosfery Puszczy Białowieskiej a jego mieszkańcy - diagnoza współdziałania (studium socjologiczne). Warszawa-Białystok-Lublin, Instytut Badawczy Leśnictwa. Adger N.W., Brown K., Fairbrass J., Jordan A., Paavola J., Rosendo S., Seyfang G. 2003. Governance for sustainability: towards a ‘thick’ analysis of environmental decision making. Environment and Planning A 35: 1095-1110. DOI 10.1068/a35289. Blavascunas E. 2014. When foresters reterritorialize the periphery: post-socialist forest politics in Białowieża, Poland. Journal of


The controversy between naturalists and foresters on the management of the Białowieża Forest is one of numerous disputes in conservation biology. Cause of the dispute is a difference in stand-point on the purpose of nature conservation. Biocentrists () argue that the only goal should be to preserve natural processes as well as endangered ecosystems and species. Anthropocentrists on the other hand () support conservation as a need of mankind, that is, the sustainable support of ecosystem services with the protection of species and ecosystems simply being a side effect. Another important factor in the dispute is the management of bark beetle mass outbreaks. Foresters try to control this by removing the infested trees, but naturalists protest against this practice. However, in 2013, the European Commission clearly presented its statement in this regard (EU Guidelines on Wilderness in Natura 2000); and thus, the dispute has only shown that none of the debating parties are familiar with the EU guidelines.

According to the author, the more serious problem of messy organization of the Białowieża Forest conservation is rarely raised in the dispute. Multiple protected areas were established in the forest based on six different law forms for nature conservation and two forms of international origin. Such surplus of forms and areas leads to chaos and hinders the management of this valuable area.

The needs and possibilities of constructing on site wastewater treatment plants in forester's lodges

Forest lodges are often located far from settlements which makes that water supply and sewage treatment problems must be treated in an individual manner. Domestic waste waters from free-standing buildings not connected to sewerage systems should be collected in septic tanks and transported to sewage treatment plants or treated in place of their production in the so-called on-site wastewater treatment plants. Based on data from 33 forest commissions subjected to the Regional Authority of State Forests in Olsztyn an assessment of the equipment of forest lodges in water and waste water infrastructure. Water supply and waste water management was the subject of analyses. From among 795 analysed forest lodges 59% were supplied in water from the water mains out of which 11 lodges possessed also their own water intake. The remaining 41% of lodges had their own intakes of potable water. Sixty percent of forest lodges were equipped with septic tanks. Slightly more than a half of them had a contract for waste water disposal, others had bills for such services. From among analysed lodges 18% were connected to sewer systems and 22% had on site wastewater treatment plants. Technology of on site wastewater treatment was presented in this paper. Their advantages and disadvantages were discussed and practical solutions to be applied in analysed forest lodges were presented.

Edukacja przyrodniczo-leśna w Nadleśnictwie Rudnik

A., Schwebler R. 1981. Schuld durch Schulden? Nutzen und Grenzen der Staatsverschuldung [Guilt by debt? Utility of and limitations to financial liability of the state]. München/Zürich, Droemersche Verlagsbuchhandlung Th. Knaur Nachf. Packard V. 1957. The Hidden Persuaders, New York. Richter A. 1950. Heinrich Cotta - Leben und Werk eines deutschen Forstmannes [Heinrich Cotta - life and work of a German forester]. Radebeul - Berlin, Neumann Verlag, pp. 125-166. Rubner H. 1967. Forstgeschichte im Zeitalter der industriellen Revolution [Forest history at times of the


The development of social network sites not only facilitates the acquisition and deepening of knowledge but also provides the possibility of easily contacting foresters, specialists in natural sciences and nature enthusiasts. In addition, for some years already, Internet users have been able to make use of websites operated by institutions and participate in nature-related social network groups.

The purpose of our survey was to evaluate the possibility of using the main fanpage of the State Forests and virtual nature groups in Poland and Great Britain to propagate knowledge about nature and forestry. The aim was to verify the recipient groups and explore the benefits derived by users from informal forest education as well as to determine how they assess the work of foresters or the reliability of the provided content posted on the portals.

The research found that the majority of respondents use portals to gain knowledge and communicate with specialists whilst social networks are a motivating factor encouraging people to take advantage of recreation in forest areas by collecting mushrooms and herbs. Our results clearly point out the advantages and disadvantages of the State Forests’ fanpage and other nature-related social groups.

The importance of social networks in education and communicating with the public is steadily increasing. Therefore, social networking websites should be refined and accommodate the constantly-changing needs of society as well as allow members of virtual groups to converse with foresters. The State Forests should support nature-related groups in attracting real enthusiasts. Organisational and substantive support for these groups would allow an increase in ecological awareness and knowledge about forest management directly from the practitioners.


The issue of rot detection in standing timber or stocked wood is very important in forest management. Rot flaw detection used for that purpose is represented by invasive and non-invasive devices. Non-invasive devices are very accurate, but due to the cost and complicated operation they have not been applied on a large scale in forest management. Taking into account the practical needs of foresters a prototype of low-frequency flaw was developed. The principle of its operation is based on the difference in acoustic wave propagation in sound wood and wood with rot.

Wood Debris in Rivers - One of the Key Factors for Management of the Floodplain Forest Biotope of European Importance

The article deals with analysis and management of wood debris accumulation in the Morava River within the Special Area of Conservation Litovelske Pomoravi (Czech Republic). Wood debris creates interference of interests between nature conservation (requirements for keeping wood debris in the stream) and foresters as well as water managers (requirements for removing wood debris from the flow area of the river). Based on the presented analyses, there was a set of wood debris management measures proposed in Litovelske Pomoravi in order to respect dynamics of fluvial succession series of floodplain forest biotopes, which are included in the Natura 2000 system.


Existing knowledge of the Ukrainian foresters related to the historical changes and current state of silver fir forests, as well as on the various methods of restoration of such forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians were discussed. Forest cover of fir stands in this region has been diminishing in the last two centuries. Only in the period from 1947 to 1956, the area of fir stands in Ukrainian Carpathians decreased by 38.8%. Currently, the restoration of fir stands in these areas are crucial for Ukrainian forestry. Therefore, the natural as well as artificial regeneration using seeds obtained from seed orchards are currently used. Thus, improving the forest stands’ conditions mostly composed of single-spruce plantations need to be improved through changing the species compositions. However, the restoration of fir stands is time and labour-intensive, and require a long-term strategy.


This work presents two different strategies of ABM for management of selected lakeland landscapes and their impact on sustainable development. Two different lakeland research areas as well as two different sets of agents and their decision rules were compared. In Strategy 1 decisions made by farmers and their influence on the land use/cover pattern as well as the indirect consequence of phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the water bodies were investigated. In this strategy, a group of farmer agents is encouraged to participate in an agri-environmental program. The Strategy 2 combines the decisions of farmers, foresters and local authorities. The agents in the model share a common goal to produce a spatial plan. The land use/cover patterns arising from different attitudes and decision rules of the involved actors were investigated. As the basic spatial unit, the first strategy employed a landscape unit, i.e. lake catchment whereas the second strategy used an administrative unit, i.e. commune. Both strategies resulted in different land use/cover patterns and changes, which were evaluated in terms of sustainability policy. The main conclusion for Strategy 1 is that during 5 years of farmer’s participation in the agri-environmental program, there was significant decrease of nutrient leaching to the lake. The main conclusion for Strategy 2 should be stated that cooperating of the agents is better for the natural environment than the competitions between them. In both strategies, agents’ decisions influence the environment but different spatial units of analysis express this environment.