preliminary results of simulation. - Forestry Studies / Metsanduslikud Uurimused, 56, 56-78. Nilson, T., Lang, M., Lükk, T., Eenmäe, A. 2008. Remote sensing of forestproductivity. - Väljataga, K., Kaukver, K. (eds.). Kaugseire Eestis. (Remote Sensing in Estonia). Tartu Observatoorium, Keskkonnaministeeriumi Info- ja Tehnokeskus, Tallinn, 78-90. (In Estonian). Ross, J. 1981. The radiation regime and architecture of plant stands. Junk Publ., The Netherlands, 391 pp. Russak, V., Kallis, A. 2003. Eesti kiirguskliima teatmik (Handbook of Estonian Solar Radiation Climate). EMHI
Investigation of species composition, soil physical and chemical properties, as well as forest productivity of oligomesic dry pine forests (Vacciniosa and Myrtillosa forest types) was carried out in six dry land zones differing in age of the Lake Engure catchment area (sediment zones of the drained lakebed, Mia, Limnea, Litorina Sea, Baltic Ice Lake and glaciofluvial sediment zone in Northern Kursa Upland). Higher species diversity in the tree layer and a more typical podzolisation process was found in the older dry land zones (sediments of the Baltic Ice Lake, Northern Kursa Upland), while higher species diversity in the field layer (higher proportion of grasses and sword grasses), more intensive gleying process in soils, as well as considerably higher stand productivity was observed in the younger dry land zones (the drained lakebed, Mia, Limnea and Littorina Sea stages). Characteristic species of the Vaccinio-Piceetea class were dominant in the pine forests of older dry land zones, whereas species of the Pulsatillo-Pinetea class were typical in the sea coastal pine forests.
Wrocławiu, Wrocław, 276 s. ISBN 978-83-7717-112-7. Budyko M.I. 1975. Klimat i życie. PWN, Warszawa, 526 s. Charru M., Seynave I., Morneau F., Bontemps J.-N. 2010. Recent changes in forestproductivity: an analysis of national forest inventory data for common beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in north-eastern France. Forest Ecology and Management 260(5): 864–874. DOI 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.06.005. Czarnecka M., Nidzgorska-Lencewicz J. 2012. Wieloletnia zmienność sezonowych opadów w Polsce. Woda-Środowisko-Obszary Wiejskie t. 12, z. 2(38): 45–60. ISSN 1642-8145. Danielak D
The MODIS (The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) yearly NPP (Net Primary Production) 1 km resolution products were collected over Estonia for years 2000-2010. The MODIS NPP product for forest pixels showed a clear West-East decreasing trend over the Estonian territory. At the same time the trunk volume increment estimates extracted from the Estonian national statistics averaged over the same period showed the opposite trend. The MODIS NPP algorithm seems to overestimate the contribution of meteorological variables and to ignore the role of soil fertility differences. To improve the predictive power of MODIS algorithm to describe local NPP differences, the local meteorological data with higher spatial resolution should be used as an input in the NPP calculations, whereas the algorithm should be modified by optimizing the input parameters and including parameters of soil fertility into the calculation scheme.
A light use efficiency (LUE) type model named EST_PP to simulate the yearly gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) of Estonian land on a 1 km2 grid is described. The model is based on MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) satellite images to describe the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and leaf area index (LAI) as well as meteorological reanalysis datasets on 11 km2 grid produced by Estonian Meteorological Institute (EMHI) and Tartu University (TU) by means of the HIRLAM (High Resolution Limited Area Model) numerical weather prediction model. The land cover map of Estonia needed for the model was derived using DMCii (Disaster Monitoring Constellation International Imaging) SLIM-6-22 (Surrey Linear Imager - 6 channel - 22 m resolution) images and ancillary information. The EST_PP model was run for the period from years 2003 to 2011. The results of GPP and NPP simulation are compared with the available global MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) GPP/NPP product and with the Estonian statistical data on yearly volume increment in forests and on yield of agricultural crops. The NPP simulation results on coniferous and deciduous forests are compared with the data from tree ring analyses from different counties. These comparisons show us that the simulated country average yearly NPP values for Estonian forests agree reasonably well with the indirect estimates from other sources, taking into account the rather high uncertainty of the model predictions, uncertainty of forest inventory-based estimates and limited representativity of existing tree ring data. However, problems arise with the ability of present versions of EST_PP and MODIS NPP models to adequately simulate the regional differences of productivity and of variability of productivity in different years. The model needs some modification and the basic LUE principles to be tested in Estonia. Nevertheless, the MODIS NPP and EST_PP models offer additional possibilities to map yearly productivity and carbon sequestration by Estonian vegetation. There is a perspective to add the model-simulated NPP values into the national inventory datasets.
References Barber, S. A., 1995: Soil nutrient bioavailability: a mechanistic approach 2 nd edition. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 418 p. Boisvenue, C., Running, S. W., 2006: Impacts of climate change on natural forestproductivity–evidence since the middle of the 20 th century. Global Change Biology, 12:862–882. Bontemps, J. D., Hervé, J. C., Leban, J. M., Dhôte, J. F., 2011: Nitrogen footprint in a long-term observation of forest growth over the twentieth century. Trees, 25:237–251. Brady, N. C., Weil, R. R., 2008: The nature and properties of soils. 14 th ed
The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged) examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species), Ascomycota (103 species) and Basidiomycota (19 species). Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species), Ascomycota (90 species) and Basidiomycota (29 species). In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37%) occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.
This supply would secure the continuity of fauna and flora and guarantee a stable forest development. The nutritional and ecological preferences of many fungal species furthermore indicate the necessity of supplying the forests with wood of different species.
In commercially managed forests the results obtained here will aid in: (i) the development of strategies for effective dead wood management in the context of forest productivity and future wood stock growth, as well as (ii) finding a compromise between forest management requirements and environmental protection.
Potential of Photosynthesis as A Renewable Source of Energy and Materials
Responding to recently published considerations concerning biomass as a renewable substitute for fossil fuels to provide at least part of the necessary total amount of primary energy annually consumed in an economy system the authors estimate capacity of photosynthesis in a case study of the Republic of Latvia (Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea). The calculations are made on the basis of recent inventory data on land use, distribution of forest land between the stands of the main dominating species, and the average level of forest productivity specific to species at felling age. Sustainable annual supply of dry biomass from the present forest area available for economic purposes is estimated being equal to 3.7 million metric tons the energy equivalent of species (aspen and grey alder) traditionally harvested for firewood including logging residues from timber wood comprising ~ 13 thousand GWh, which is equal to ~ 24% of the present annual consumption of primary energy.
Paul Parey. – 338 S. https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.19650070328 Shakhov AA (1956) Salt stability of plants. Moscow: Science Publishing House. – 552 p. – (In Russian). Sivolapov AI (2005) Gray poplar: genetics, breeding, reproduction. Voronezh: Voronezh State University. - 157 p. – (In Russian). Tkachenko ME (1951) the Materials of the steppe afforestation. Moscow-Leningrad: Goslesbumizdat. 84 p. – (In Russian). Vikhrov VS, Fedorov N, Kochanovsky SB (1966) On the stability of aspen to heart rot // Ways to improve forestproductivity / Proceeding All-Union meeting on
R eferences Albenskiy, A.V. 1959. Tree breeding and seed production.(in Russian). Goslesbumizdat Press, Moscow-Leningrad, USSR. Bilous, V.I. 2004. Tree breeding and seed production of English oak (in Ukrainian). NIITEHIM Press, Cherkasy, Ukraine. Brummer, C., et al. 2011. Plant breeding for harmony between agriculture and the environment. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9, 10. doi:10.1890/100225 CIA-The world Fact book. 2012. Cia.gov.Retrieved (accessed August 1, 2018). Crow, T.R., Dey, D.C. 2006. ForestProductivity: Producing Goods and Services for