Biodiversity refers to genetic, species and ecosystems varieties within an area. Two main characteristics that should be investigated when considering biodiversity are richness and evenness. Richness is related to the number of different species in the analyzed area, while evenness corresponds to the homogeneity of the abundance of species. For quantifying these features, many indices have been defined, and this paper offers an overview of the most commonly used biodiversity indices, such as Shannon, Simpson, Margalef and Berger-Parker. The paper explains the process of calculating these indices on the case study example of four forest communities and discusses the results obtained. The Jaccard index analysis is used to discover a similarity between the analyzed forest communities. Results from this part of the research are visualized by creating appropriate dendrograms for making the interpretation easier. Calculating and analyzing these indices is useful not only for forest ecosystems, but for the other types of ecosystems as well, including agro-ecosystems. Biodiversity indices can be obtained in thespecialized software, for instance in EstimateS (Statistical Estimation of Species Richness and Shared Species from Samples), or by programming in the statistical package R, as it was done in this research.
Changes in similarities of five forest communities and of open space taking place during the year were analyzed in the scope of twelve daily and monthly characteristics of air temperature. The density of tree crowns having impact on the level of solar radiation reaching the ground during the day and the level of long term nocturnal emissions is the most important factor shaping thermal conditions in the forest.
., Mackenzie M. D., 2009: Riparian woody plant traits across an urban-rural land use gradient and implications for watershed function with urbanization. - Landscape and Urban Planning, 90(1-2): 42-55. Chmura D., Sierka E., 2006: Relationships between invasive plant Impatiens parviflora and species richness of forest floor vegetation. - Polish Journal of Ecology, 54(3): 417-428. Chmura D., Sierka E., 2007: The invasibility of deciduous forestcommunities after disturbance: A case study of Carex brizoides and Impatiens parviflor a invasion. - Forest Ecology and Management
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The Analysis of the Forest Flora of the Strzyżowskie Foothills from the Perspective of Presence of Anthropogenic Species
The anthropogenic pressure of the forest communities of the Strzyżowskie Foothills (the Western Carpathians) was estimated on the basis of phytosociological materials. Carr communities are among the most threatened by invasive and alien species of the forest flora. The phenomenon of invasiveness of native species such as Calamagrostis epigejos or Carex brizoides was described. The highest number of ancient woodland indicator species was noted in the beech forest.
Protected plant species of forest, lakes and peatbogs in the Western Part of the Drawskie Lakeland
A floristic study of forest communities, lakes, and peatbogs of the western part of the Drawskie Lakeland was carried out in 2006-2008. The study revealed the presence of numerous valuable plant species. More than 400 floristic lists were compiled. Plant surveys were conducted with the aid of the ATPOL square grid system. To increase the accuracy of the surveys, the basic ATPOL squares (10x10 km) were additionally subdivided into smaller ones of 1x1 km. The area of study was found to support 416 plant species, including protected ones: 17 species strictly protected (e.g., Blechnum spicant, Dactylorhiza incarnata, Drosera rotundifolia, Lycopodium annotinum, Utricularia intermedia) and 12 under partial protection (e.g., Frangula alnus, Menyanthes trifoliata, Ononis spinosa, Ribes nigrum, Viburnum opulus). The list of protected plants contains one species (Lobelia dortmanna) included in the Polish Red Book of Plants.
of the Republic of Bulgaria, vol. 3. Natural habitats, MOEW-BAS, Sofia, pp. 353–355. Škorić, M. & Vasić, O. (eds.). 2006. Vegatation of Serbia II. Forestcommunities 2. SANU, Belgrade, p. 369. [in Serbian] Sedlar, Z. Hršak, V. & Šoštarić, R. 2011: Numerical and phytosociological analysis of the Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae Domac (1956) 1965. Association and comparison to Mediterranean forests dominated by Pinus nigra Arn. s.l. Šumarski list 135(3–4): 139–152. Seibert, P. 1992: Klasse: Erico-Pinetea Horvat 59. – In: Oberdorfer, E. (ed.): Süddeutsche
Ancient Woodlands' and Synanthropic Plants as Indicators of Maintenance of the Forest Communities in the Nature Reserves of the Oświęcim Basin
The landscape of the Oświęcim Basin, naturally dominated by forest communities, has been strongly transformed due to the long-term activities of man. Across time and space, it has been stamped by pond management and agriculture to the highest degree. Despite such a strong transformation of the natural environment fragments of forests which reflect the peculiarities of forest vegetation of the macroregion still occur. These are the Żaki and the Przeciszów nature reserves. The goal of the phytosociological studies done within their borders was the assessment of the Tilio-Carpinetum phytocoenoses which dominate in the reserves, regarding their: maintenance, naturalness, anthropological changes and compliance to anthropopressure, as well as natural values. Therefore, analyses related to the share of: character species, ancient woodland indicators and synanthropes were performed for purposes of the study. It has been proposed that transformations of the forest communities be assessed using the new formula of floristic naturalness coefficient (WNF), based on the share of ancient woodland and synanthropic species.
The aim of the study, carried out from April to October in 2004 and 2005, was to characterise bee (Apiformes) assemblages in the phytosociologically diversified forest communities of the Suchedniów-Oblęgorek Landscape Park. Moericke colour traps were used to capture the bees. The five study sites yielded 76 bee species. There was a predominance of representatives from the families Apidae (28 species, 900 individuals) and Andrenidae (20 species, 222 individuals). The indices of species diversity (H’) and evenness (J’) reached their highest values in a mixed coniferous forest (BM) site, and reached their lowest values in a fi r forest (BJ) site. Qualitative and quantitative similarity of assemblage structure was highest in assemblages in mixed coniferous forest, mesic coniferous forest, and oak-hornbeam forest habitats, decreasing in floristically poor habitats not favourable to nesting, i.e. fi r forest and riparian forest. Traps placed on the forest floor in ground cover contained more individuals and species of bees, with 1192 individuals (88.8%) and 76 species, than in the canopy layer, with 150 individuals (11.2%) and 23 species. This trend was consistent across all the habitats in the Landscape Park.