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Abstract

Background: The anogenital colposcopic examination is not a routine procedure in the ordinary examination of children, and knowledge is sparse regarding child and parental anticipation and coping.

Methodology: The study included 60 children aged 4 - 15 years of age, examined on grounds of alleged sexual abuse, during a two year period. The physician rated the child using the Procedure Behavioral Rating Scale (PBRS). In addition, the child and parent completed a questionnaire concerning their experience.

Principal findings: Mean PBRS score was 1.3. Significant positive correlations were found between the parental expectations to the child’s anxiety regarding the examination, and the children’s anxiety, the experience of the examination being bad/ugly and the experience of pain during the examination. Significantly higher PBRS scores were found in the group with no perpetrator conviction.

Conclusions: High levels of parental and child distress emphasizes the need for better preparatory and stress reducing procedures, to avoid possible re-victimization and negative influence of parental anticipatory anxiety on the child. The finding of significantly higher PBRS scores in the group with no conviction could indicate, that lack of behavioral distress might be related to the possibility of sexual abuse.

håndteringsstrategier på sensitive steder, 1st ed., Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2004, pp. 181-201 [4] Jacobsen, M. H., I Dødens rige- håndteringsstrategier blandt dødsarbejdere på et dansk hospital in: Jacobsen, M. H. (Ed.), I Samfundets sprækker, 1st ed., Aalborg Universitetsforlag, Aalborg, 2007, pp. 211-250 [5] www.forensic.dk [6] Barnard, A., Visions of Anthropology, in: History and Theory in Anthropology 8th ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000, pp. 1-14 [7] Thomsen, J. L., Hvad er en god retsmediciner? in: En retsmediciner fortæller, 2nd ed., Forlaget Forum

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ABSTRACT

The relationship between the second and the fourth digit in the human hand, the 2D:4D index, is considered a putative marker of exposure to prenatal testosterone. Much research has been done in the attempt to associate the 2D:4D index and physical characteristics as well as cognitive skills and behavioral patterns. It has been suggested that these characteristics and behavioral patterns may be linked to high levels of testosterone. The basis for considering the 2D:4D index a marker of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and the influence of prenatal and circulating testosterone on behavior are reviewed. Furthermore, it is discussed whether forensic medicine may benefit from identification of a marker of behavioral predispositions. It seems that it is not possible to derive any valid information on predispositions from finger length ratio, however the field of 2D:4D research might benefit from forensic studies.

ABBREVIATIONS bp – base pairs cfDNA – cell-free fetal DNA CODIS – Combined DNA Index System DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid EDNAP – European DNA Profiling Group ENFSI – European Network of Forensic Science Institute ESS – European Standard Set EU – European Union FBI – Federal Burean of Investigation HV1 - hyper variable region 1 HV2 - hyper variable region 2 MPS – Massively Parallel Sequencing mRNA – messenger ribonucleic acid mtDNA – mitochondrial DNA NA – nucleic acid PCR – polymorphism chain reaction RNA – ribonucleic acid RFLP - restriction fragment length

REFERENCES Alden, M.E., Bryan, D.M., Lessley, B.J., & Tripathy, A. (2012). Detection of Financial Statement Fraud Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting , 9(1), 71-94. doi:10.2308/jeta-50390 Arežina, N., Knežević, G., Simeunović, N., & Vukićević, S. (2014). Forensic Accountant: Innate Trait or Acquired Skill ? Singidunum University International Scientific Conference Financial Reporting Function of the Corporate Governance, Belgrade, December 5 (pp. 131-134). Belgrade: Singidunum University. doi:10.15308/finiz-2014

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