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_Literature_Review_on_Acceptance_of_Multimedia_Technologies_to_Enhance_E-learning_in_Higher_Education_Institutions_Focusing_on_Challenges Kobysia, V. M., Zarichanska, N. V. & Bobliienko, O. P. (2017). Creating and using electronic textbooks for language learning. Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 61(5), 15-23. Kunanbayeva S. S. (2000). Methodical preparation of students in the conditions of informatization of the theory and methods of foreign language teaching. Almaty. Lam, Y., & Lawrence, G. (2002). Teacher-student role redefinition during a computer-based second language project: Are computers catalysts for empowering change? Computer Assisted Language Learning , 15(3), 295-315. https


The use of mass communication in the field of foreign language teaching is not a new phenomenon, because traditional media have been in use in this area for a few decades. Nowadays, however, several tendencies confirming the scale of this phenomenon can be observed. Mass media, and new media in particular, are used both in the process of self-education and as an important tool used by foreign language teachers. Technological progress, the communication revolution, the spread of the Internet, and the development of new media and mobile technologies offer modern and more effective methods of language education. This article reviews the conditions relating to the relationship between mass media and language learning, taking into account the possibility of using one of the key functions of mass communication, namely its educational function. The authors, using literature analysis, defined and analyzed the causes of specific symbiosis between media tools and technologies as well as the methodology used in the field of foreign language teaching.

R eferences Altun, M. (2015). The integration of technology into foreign language teaching, International Journal on New Trends in Educations and their Implications , 6 (1), 22-27, available at: . Ciroma, Z. I. (2014). ICT and education: issues and challenges. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences , 5 (26), 98-100, available at: . Eaton, S. E. (2010). Global trends in language learning in the twenty-first century , Calgary

-Language Mediation in Foreign Language Teaching and Testing . Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Wenger, Etienne. 1998. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Recent scientific studies have demonstrated the clear existence of brain sexual dimorphism, with distinct structural, chemical, genetic, hormonal and functional differences between the two sexes. In spite of the complexity of this theme and even though science acknowledges that many questions are still not answered, it is a fact today that the brain is a sexed organ. The differences between girls and boys regarding cognitive and emotional processing naturally have consequences in teaching-learning situations. Nevertheless, most teachers are not aware of these differences and their effects. Each group of students is not a selection of androgynous individuals, therefore differentiated strategies according to sex are an optimisation tool in teaching-learning situations, both in single-sex and co-ed contexts.


Over the last 15 to 20 years, changes in foreign language teaching policies in Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs) have been subject to little discussion and less inter-institutional dialogue. Each institution has absorbed different European directives, and more specifically adapted its context in response to the Bologna Process, according to its own interpretation leading to widespread ‘distortion’ across foreign language teaching curricula. While demand for foreign language courses remains high in Portuguese HEIs there has been little formal research and scarce funding available for projects related to introducing innovative practices and materials. This paper provides a critical reading of the current state of play in this crucial sphere of higher education in Portugal.


This article reports Chilean and Finnish foreign-language (FL) teachers’ perceptions of teaching and study realities in their own FL classrooms. Communicative language teaching (CLT) is used as the teaching–studying–learning methodological framework of an international KIELO project (= the acronym for Finnish “kieltenopetus” meaning “language teaching”), whose online survey was used to collect data for this article. We aim at answering the following research question: What are the FL teachers’ main approaches to teaching and studying in Chilean and Finnish FL classrooms and what is the FL classroom teaching and study reality like in these two countries? The data were collected from 83 Chilean and 147 Finnish FL teachers through an online survey covering 15 key themes of CLT and including 115 Likert-scale statements and 8 open-ended questions. In the descriptive data analysis, both Chilean and Finnish FL teachers claim that they encourage their students to use the target language considerably and that they use communicative oral tasks. For both groups of participants, however, teacher-centeredness and use of textbook score relatively high. The two-cluster analysis revealed a context-dependent cluster and a context-independent cluster. Context-dependent teachers tended to favor communicative oral tasks, real-life tasks and their own language tasks, whereas context-independent teachers favored more non-communicative tasks. Context-dependent teachers proved more student-centered than context-independent teachers. For Chilean and Finnish research participants, the use of mother tongue in foreign language classrooms appears to be an issue despite the growing need of foreign language communication.


This article reports on a small-scale action research project developed in the context of the practicum of a Teacher Education Masters course at the Faculty of Letters, the University of Porto. The project was focussed on the importance of visual stimuli in the foreign language teaching classroom (English and Spanish), within the context of an intercultural approach. Different strategies, activities and materials were employed with the general aim of helping the learners to develop their critical cultural awareness. The learners played a central role, participating actively, by bringing into the classroom their own knowledge of the world. Simultaneously, the role of the teacher was not without importance in this action research project, presenting herself as an example of a cultural mediator.


The article provides an overview of the developments in Poland after the collapse of communism in 1989 from the point of view of foreign language teaching, including a swift reorientation and transition from a public school system with Russian as the main foreign language, to a diversified language teaching market focused on teaching English and other languages. A particular stress is placed on a relatively new phenomenon, being an increased demand and new opportunities for teaching Polish as a foreign language to be further promoted as a result of anticipated amendments to legal regulations governing the status and certification of the Polish language.


Integration into the European Union, increasing communication and cooperation between countries have brought an extensive interest in foreign languages and the need for foreign language teaching and learning has been recognized by the developers of Lithuanian education policy as an inseparable component of personal development. Teaching and learning of Romanic languages in Lithuania have been popular, exceptional, though varied. French language teaching has old traditions in both formal and non-formal education; while teaching of other Romanic languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, etc.) has not been legally regulated yet – teaching traditions have not been formed, there are no specific teaching syllabi and programs, a lack of methodology and experts in didactics. However, Spanish language learning in Lithuanian secondary education schools and gymnasiums is becoming more and more popular in the recent years. In Lithuanian secondary education Spanish is taught as the second and third foreign language or as an extra-curriculum activity in non-formal education. The analysis of scientific literature revealed a lack of scientific studies and publications not only about the teaching of Spanish but also comparative studies between Lithuanian and Spanish languages. Research into Spanish language teaching and learning indicates not only the increasing number of learners, but also the increasing awareness with regard to the importance and usefulness of Spanish language competence acquisition for international encounters. However, Spanish language teachers face challenges such as insufficient number of teaching hours in general education institutions, lack of qualified Spanish language teachers, insufficient provision with teaching and learning aids and other support material, no state examinations are organized which could help to determine the learners’ Spanish language competences as well as motivate learners to learn this Romanic language.