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Abstract

The aim of the present review is to highlight the threats to human health posed by consumption of milk and dairy products. The interest in drinking raw milk has been growing in some societies as many people believe it has health benefits. Raw milk is promoted as ‘health food’ despite the fact that it poses a realistic microbiological hazard for the consumers’ health or life. Food-borne disease outbreaks associated with Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli, Brucella melitensis, Mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne encephalitis virus have been traced to the consumption of raw milk, however, many other microorganisms that can be present in milk are considered as potential food-borne pathogens to humans. The other common causative agents in food-borne disease outbreaks are bacterial toxins produced by Bacillus, Clostridium and Staphylococcus spp. Some of the milk pathogens harbour antimicrobial resistant genes, which can be transferred to commensal bacteria. Most dangerous are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta lactamase/AmpC gene-carrying bacteria from the family of Enterobacteriaceae, which might negatively affect the treatment of infections in humans. Fungi are not considered as food-borne pathogens for humans, however their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins, constitute a potential threat to public health. Mycotoxins or their metabolites detected so far in milk samples include aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and its metabolites, fumonisins, de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol and cyclopiazonic acid.

DNA Microarray technology for the detection of foodborne pathogens. Food Bioproc Tech, 4, 936-953. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0430-5 4. Jošić D., Petković J., Bunčić O., Lepšanović Z., Pivić R., Rašić Z., Katić V. (2016). Typing of indigenous Campylobacter spp. from Serbia by M-PCR and RAPD. Acta Veterinaria-Beograd, 66 (2): 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1515/acve-2016-0017 5. Fukushima, H., Katsube, K., Hata, Y., Kishi, R., Fujiwara, S. (2007). Rapid separation and concentration of food-borne pathogens in food samples prior to quantification by viable

Abstract

Outdoor access is an important part of organic and free-range poultry production, yet limited information exists on the effect of various housing and production systems on the growth performance and colonization of food-borne pathogens. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study was to evaluate the influence of different housing systems (particularly fixed versus small, portable houses, with and without outdoor access to pasture) and different broiler genotypes on the gastrointestinal bacteria in broilers. The fundamental factor studied was the presence of any quantitative changes in common gastrointestinal microbiota, including pathogenic genera such as Campylobacter sp. and Salmonella sp. The results showed differences in intestinal microbiota and confirmed lowered counts of caecal coliforms in pasture-reared broilers.

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