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The aim of the present review is to highlight the threats to human health posed by consumption of milk and dairy products. The interest in drinking raw milk has been growing in some societies as many people believe it has health benefits. Raw milk is promoted as ‘health food’ despite the fact that it poses a realistic microbiological hazard for the consumers’ health or life. Food-borne disease outbreaks associated with Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli, Brucella melitensis, Mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne encephalitis virus have been traced to the consumption of raw milk, however, many other microorganisms that can be present in milk are considered as potential food-borne pathogens to humans. The other common causative agents in food-borne disease outbreaks are bacterial toxins produced by Bacillus, Clostridium and Staphylococcus spp. Some of the milk pathogens harbour antimicrobial resistant genes, which can be transferred to commensal bacteria. Most dangerous are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta lactamase/AmpC gene-carrying bacteria from the family of Enterobacteriaceae, which might negatively affect the treatment of infections in humans. Fungi are not considered as food-borne pathogens for humans, however their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins, constitute a potential threat to public health. Mycotoxins or their metabolites detected so far in milk samples include aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and its metabolites, fumonisins, de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol and cyclopiazonic acid.

DNA Microarray technology for the detection of foodborne pathogens. Food Bioproc Tech, 4, 936-953. 4. Jošić D., Petković J., Bunčić O., Lepšanović Z., Pivić R., Rašić Z., Katić V. (2016). Typing of indigenous Campylobacter spp. from Serbia by M-PCR and RAPD. Acta Veterinaria-Beograd, 66 (2): 203-213. 5. Fukushima, H., Katsube, K., Hata, Y., Kishi, R., Fujiwara, S. (2007). Rapid separation and concentration of food-borne pathogens in food samples prior to quantification by viable


Outdoor access is an important part of organic and free-range poultry production, yet limited information exists on the effect of various housing and production systems on the growth performance and colonization of food-borne pathogens. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study was to evaluate the influence of different housing systems (particularly fixed versus small, portable houses, with and without outdoor access to pasture) and different broiler genotypes on the gastrointestinal bacteria in broilers. The fundamental factor studied was the presence of any quantitative changes in common gastrointestinal microbiota, including pathogenic genera such as Campylobacter sp. and Salmonella sp. The results showed differences in intestinal microbiota and confirmed lowered counts of caecal coliforms in pasture-reared broilers.

. International Organization for Standardization, 1999: Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs—Horizontal Method for Enumeration of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) . Part 2: Technique using rabbit plasma fibrinogen agar medium. ISO 6888-2-1999. Geneva. 13. International Organization for Standardization, 2006: Microbiology of Food and Feed—Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based Method for detection of Food-borne Pathogens. Requirements for sampling preparation for detection analyses . STN EN ISO 20837-2006. Geneva. 14

International Article ID 128697, 15 pp. Krumpernam, P.H. 1983. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of Escherichia coli to identify risk sources of fecal contamination of foods. App. Environ. Microbiol., 46 , 165 – 170. Kumar, R.H., Rishu, B.A. and Osborne, J.W., 2012. Isolation of various bacterial pathogens from domestic refrigerators. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 53 , 151-153 Kusumaningrum, H.D., Riboldi, G., Hazeleger, W.C. and Beumer, R.R., 2002. Survival of food borne pathogens on stainless steel surfaces and cross

pig and weaned pig performance. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2005, 3 , 303-308. 7. Ito A., Sato Y., Kudo S., Sato S., Nakajima H., Toba T.: The screening of hydrogen peroxide producing lactic acid bacteria and their application to inactivating psychotrophic food borne pathogens. Curr Microbiol 2003, 47 , 231-236. 8. Janik A., Koska M., Paluch U., Pieszka M., Barowicz T.: Probiotics in piglet nutrition. Wiad Zootech 2006, 1 , 3-9. 9. Klebanoff S.J., Hillier S.L., Eschenbach D.A., Waltersdorph A.M.: Control of microbial flora of the vagina by H2O2-generating lactobacilli

beef and sheep carcasses in South Australia. Int J Food Microbiol 2003, 81 , 255-260. 18. Wieczorek K., Denis E., Osek J.: Occurrence of four major food-borne pathogens in cattle slaughtered in Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2009, 53 , 439-444. 19. Zweifel C., Baltzer D., Stephan R.: Microbiological contamination of cattle and pig carcasses at five abattoirs determined by swab sampling in accordance with EU Decision 2001/471/EC. Meat Sci 2005, 69 , 559-566. 20. Zweifel C., Fischer R., Stephan R.: Microbiological contamination of pig and cattle carcasses in different

indicator of cell growth, and its application in the in vitro antibacterial screening of phytochemicals, Methods, 42(4):321-324 17. Segvic Klaric M, Kosalec I, Mastelic J, Pieckova E, Pepeljnak S (2007) Antifungal activity of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings. Soc. Applied Microbiol. 44:36-42 18. Smithpalmer A, Stewart J, Fyfe L (1998) Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 26:118-122 19. *** European Pharmacopoeia (1997) 3rd

:// [accessed 21 September 2014]. Farber, J.M. and Peterkin, P.I. 1991. Listeria monocytogenes , a food-borne pathogen. Microbiological Reviews 55: 476–511. Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI). 2006. 1st Trimester National Microbiological Survey 2006 (06NS1): Microbiological Safety/Quality of Raw Mushrooms. Available online: [accessed 4 February 2015]. Fox, E.F., O’Brien, M., Dempsey, R., O’Mahony, T., Hunt, T. and Jordan K. 2009. The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in the Irish farm

plate. Methods Mol Biol 2014; 1149:631-41. doi: 17. Rattanachaikunsopon P, Phumkhachorn P. Assessment of factors influencing antimicrobial activity of carvacrol and cymene against Vibrio cholerae in food. J Biosci Bioeng 2010; 110:614-9. doi: 18. Ultee A, Bennik MHJ, Moezelaar R. The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Appl Environment Microbiol 2002; 68:1561-8. doi: