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References Mitelman F. ISCN 1995: an international system for human cytogenetic nomenclature (1995): recommendations of the International Standing Committee of Human Cytogenetic Nomeclature, Memphis, TN, October 1994. Basel: Karger. 1995; 1-4. Rowley JD. A new consistent chromosomal abnormality in chronic myelogenous leukaemia identified by quinacrine fluorescence and Giemsa staining. Nature 1973; 243(5405): 290-293. Becher R, Korn WM, Prescher G. Use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization in the cytogenetic analysis of

incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in white males. Cancer. 2001;92:549-555. 22. Lagergren J, Lagergren P. Recent developments in esophageal adenocarcinoma. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013;63:232-248. 23. Duraiyan J, Govindarajan R, Kaliyappan K, Palanisamy M. Applications of immunohistochemistry. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2012;4(Suppl 2):S307-9. 24. Le Beau MM. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in cancer diagnosis. Important Adv Oncol. 1993;29-45. 25. Hu L, Ru K, Zhang L, et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): an increasingly demanded tool for biomarker research and

.), 2012: Mammalian Toxicology of Insecticides . Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 506 pp. 12. Natarajan, A. T., 2001: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in genetic toxicology. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. , 20, 293—298. 13. Pesticide Residues in Food, 2006: Evaluations 2006 , Part II Toxicological. Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues, Rome, Italy, 595 pp. 14. Šivikova, K., Dianovský, J., Piešová, E., 2002: Genotoxic effects of pesticides in vitro (In Slovak). Ekotoxikologické biotesty , 1, 156—161. 15. Tomizawa, M., Casida, J. E., 2003

. 1984; 4(6): 463-465. 5. Schmid M. Variations of content and structure of the mammalian Y chromosome, in Sandberg AA, Ed. The Y Chromosome, Part A, Basic Characteristics of the Y Chromosome. New York: Alan R. Liss. 1985: 373-401. 6. Luo YQ, Qian YL, Lu HM, Xu CM, Jin F. Sperm-fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in patients with pericentric inversions of Y chromosome. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2009; 26(1): 54-56. 7. Marchina E, Imperadori L, Speziani M, Omodei U, Tombesi S, Barlati S. Chromosome abnormalities and Yq microdeletions in infertile

(2): 163-172. 5. Capodano AM. Nervous system: meningioma. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. July 2000 (http://Atlas meningiomasID5014. html). 6. Verma RS, Babu A. Human Chromosomes: Principles and Techniques: A Manual of Basic Techniques. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 1995. 7. Liehr T. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Application Guide. Berlin: Springer, 2009. 8. Al-Mefty O, Kadri PA, Pravdenkova S, Sawyer JR, Stangeby C, Husain M. Malignant progression in meningioma: documentation of a series and analysis of cytogenetic


Different chemicals can have genotoxic effects on the body, as confirmed by chromosome damage detection. Using conventional cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we tested the extent of chromosome damage caused by the acetamiprid-based insecticide Mospilan 20SP on bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes at concentrations of, 2.5, 5, 25 and 50 µ−1 after a 24 h incubation period. During the experiment, the presence of unstable aberrations—chromosomal and chromatid breaks and gaps—were detected by conventional cyto-genetic analysis. With increasing insecticide concentrations, we observed a statistically significant increase in chromosome damage frequency after 24 hours of exposure. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect stable structural aberrations; whole-chromosome painting probes for bovine chromosomes 1 and 7 (BTA 1 and BTA 7) were used for this purpose. As a result of exposure to the insecticide, neither BTA 1/BTA 7 translocations nor other types of translocations were observed.


Twenty-nine as yet unreported ring chromosomes were characterized in detail by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. For FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) previously published high resolution approaches such as multicolor banding (MCB), subcentromere-specific multi-color-FISH (cenM-FISH) and two to three-color-FISH applying locus-specific probes were used. Overall, ring chromosome derived from chromosomes 4 (one case), 10 (one case), 13 (five cases), 14, (three cases), 18 (two cases), 21 (eight cases), 22 (three cases), X (five cases) and Y (one case) were studied. Eight cases were detected prenatally, eight due developmental delay and dysmorphic signs, and nine in connection with infertility and/or Turner syndrome. In general, this report together with data from the literature, supports the idea that ring chromosome patients fall into two groups: group one with (severe) clinical signs and symptoms due to the ring chromosome and group two with no obvious clinical problems apart from infertility.

and 18S-5.8S-25S ribosomal DNA sites in five Asian pines using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 106: 198-204. MAGRI, D., G. G. VENDRAMIN, B. COMPS, I. DUPANLOUP, T. GEBUREK, D. GÖMÖRY, M. LATAL⁄ OWA, T. LITT, L. PAULE, J. M. ROURE, I. TANTAU, W. O. VAN DER KNAAP, R. J. PETIT and J.-L. DE BEAULIEU (2006): A new scenario for the Quaternary history of European beech populations: palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequences. New Phytologist 171: 199-221. MANOS, P. S., Z. ZHOU and C. H. CANNON (2001): Systematics of Fagaceae


This study investigated the potential genotoxic effects of the fungicide Tango® Super using methods of conventional cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and detection of DNA fragmentation in bovine lymphocytes. After exposure of two donor cell cultures to several concentrations of fungicide (0.5, 3.0 and 15.0 for conventional cytogenetic analysis; 0.5 and 3.0 for FISH) we detected the insignificant occurrence of chromosome and chromatid breakages. In both donors we observed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) percentage with increasing concentrations of fungicide (P < 0.01; P < 0.001), which indicated a cytotoxic effect of the preparation. Electrophoretic analysis of DNA fragmentation in lymphocytes exposed to increasing concentrations (0.5; 1.5; 3.0; 6.0 and 15.0 of this preparation showed its ability to induce formation of fragments, which is a characteristic manifestation of the last stage of apoptosis.


Background. Individual radiosensitivity has a crucial impact on radiotherapy related side effects. Our aim was to study a breast cancer collective for its variation of individual radiosensitivity depending on the patients’ age.

Materials and methods. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 129 individuals. Individual radiosensitivity in 67 breast cancer patients and 62 healthy individuals was estimated by 3-color fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Results. Breast cancer patients were distinctly more radiosensitive compared to healthy controls. A subgroup of 9 rather radiosensitive and 9 rather radio-resistant patients was identified. A subgroup of patients aged between 40 and 50 was distinctly more radiosensitive than younger or older patients.

Conclusions. In the breast cancer collective a distinct resistant and sensitive subgroup is identified, which could be subject for treatment adjustment. Preliminary results indicate that especially in the range of age 40 to 50 patients with an increased radiosensitivity are more frequent and may have an increased risk to suffer from therapy related side effects.