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, Proceedings of the 2011 American Control Conference, ACC 2011, San Francisco CA, USA, pp. 305-310. Franzè, G., Furfaro, A., Mattei, M. and Scordamaglia, V. (2013). An hybrid command governor supervisory scheme for flight control systems subject to unpredictable anomalies, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems, Nice, France, (CD-ROM). Gao, Z. and Antsaklis, P.K. (1991). Stability of the pseudo-inverse method for reconfigurable control systems, International Journal of Control 53(3): 717-729. Garone, E., Tedesco, F., and


The cable flight control systems are commonly used for the control of small airplanes. In these systems, the cables are the only elements transmitting loads from the pilot to the control surfaces. During a flight the cables are moving through pulleys and are subjected to variable loads. A simple analysis of stress in the cable shows that the stress generated by the cyclical bending on the pulleys causes the fatigue of the wires.

This phenomenon was noticed on a military aircraft of the M28 family during periodic maintenance inspection in 2007. The endurance tests of KSAN cables of the diameter equal to 3.5 mm and 1.8 mm were performed at the PZL MIELEC. The tests showed the limited fatigue life of the cables due to a progressive increase in the number of broken wires.

A Stewart Platform as a FBW Flight Control Unit

A variety of flight control units have been put into realization for navigational purposes of spatially moving vehicles (SMV), which is mostly manipulated by 2 or 3 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) joysticks. Since motion in space consists of three translational motions in forward, side and vertical directions and three rotational motions about these axis; with present joystick interfaces, spatial vehicles has to employ more than one navigational control unit to be able to navigate on all required directions. In this study, a 3 × 3 Stewart-Platform-based FBW (Fly-By-Wire) flight control unit with force feedback is presented which will provide single point manipulation of any SMVs along three translational and about three rotational axis. Within the frame of this paper, design, capability and the advantages of the novel system is mentioned. Kinematics of a Stewart Platform (SP) mechanism employed and its motion potentials is presented by simulations and workspace of the system is evaluated. Dynamic analysis by Bond-Graph approach will be mentioned. Mechatronic design of the complete structure is discussed and force reflection capability of the system with simulations is pointed out using stiffness control. Finally, the possible future work of the subject is discussed which may include the feasible solutions of the SP in terms of size and safety when implementing inside a cockpit.

Mechanica et Automatica , 8(2), 65-69. 8. Magnani G., Ferretti G. and Rocco P. (2007) Tecnologie dei sistemi di controllo, 2nd Ed, McGraw-Hill Italia. 9. Mahony R., Kumar V., Corke P. (2012), Multirotor Aerial Vehicles: Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Quadrotor, IEEE, Robotics & Automation Magazine , 10(3), 20 – 32. 10. McLean D. (1990), Automatic Flight Control Systems , Prentice Hall. 11. Padfield G.D. (1996), Helicopter Flight Dynamics , 2 nd Ed. Blackwell Science Ltd. 12. Pounds P., Mahony R. and Corke P. (2010), Modelling and Control of a Large

/Control System Toolbox 10.3, User’s Guide , MA: Author. MathWorks. (2018). MATLAB ® R2018b, User’s Guide. MA: Author. MathWorks. (2018). MATLAB ® Robust Control Toolbox, User’s Guide. MA: Author. McLean, D. (1990). Automatic Flight Control Systems . New York – London – Toronto – Sydney – Tokyo – Singapore: Prentice-Hall International Ltd. Ogata, K. (1999). Modern Control Engineering , New York – London: Prentice-Hall. Shahian, B., & Hassul, M. (1993) Control System Design Using MATLAB ® . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Stefani, R. T., Shahian, B., Savant

. MathWorks. (2017). MATLAB R2017b, User’s Guide, Author. McLean, D. (1990). Automatic Flight Control Systems, New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo, Singapore: Prentice-Hall International Ltd. Ogata, K. (1999). Modern Control Engineering, New York, London: Prentice-Hall. Skelton, R. E. (1988). Dynamic Systems Control, NewYork: John Wiley & Sons. Szabolcsi, R. (2011). Computer Aided Design of Modern Control Systems, Budapest: Miklós Zrínyi National Defense University. Szabolcsi, R. (2014). Longitudinal Motion Flying Qualities Applied in Airworthiness Certification

4. References 1. Jankowski A., Kowalski M.: Start-up processes’ efficiency of turbine jet engines, Journal of KONBiN, 40 (1), 1 December 2016. 2. Kowaleczko G., Dębiński J., Kwaśniak T.: Model matematyczny bomby korygowanej, opracowanie wewnętrzne ITWL, Warszawa 2017. 3. Kowaleczko G., Żyluk A., Pietraszek M., Olejniczak E.: Evaluation of the Possibility of Bomb Flight Control, Journal of KONES, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2015. 4. Kowaleczko G.: Modelowanie dynamiki lotu obiektów latających, Wyd. ITWL, Warszawa 2018. 5. Kowalski M., Sulkowski J.: Statistical Verification of

References Alwi, H., Edwards, C. and Tan, C. (2011). Fault Detection and Fault-Tolerant Control Using Sliding Modes, Springer-Verlag, London. Blanchini, F. (1999). Set invariance in control, Automatica 35(11): 1747-1767. Chakraborty, A., Seiler, P. and Balas, G.J. (2011). Nonlinear region of attraction analysis for flight control verification and validation, Control Engineering Practice 19(4): 335-345. Cunningham, K., Foster, J.V., Murch, A.M. and Morelli, E. (2008). Practical application of a subscale transport aircraft for flight research in control upset and


This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using-a water tunnel for the visualisation of flow in airfoils with flight control systems in the form of slots and flaps. Furthermore, the issue of using water tunnels for scientific and training purposes was explained. The technology of 3D printed models for practical tests in a water tunnel was also presented. The experiment included conducting flow visualisation tests for three airfoil models: with the Clark Y 11.7% as the base airfoil and the same airfoil with a slot and a flap. Moreover, a modification to dye injection system was introduced. The presented results of flow visualisation around models with the use of dye, confirmed the effectiveness of the applied methodology. The results and conclusions may be utilized to verify most flow-related issues in hydrodynamic tunnels and can also be used as a training element.


The paper explains how to benefit from information acquired from means for unbiased flight control and to use it for technical condition assessment demonstrated by the aircraft. There are two control parameters that are provided by the means of unbiased flight control and convey the highest trustworthiness and troubleshooting content. The first one is the duration of pressure drop across the avionic hydraulic drive after switching the driving unit off with the span from the upper measured limit to the lower limit. The second one is the total time of the cycle when the pressure drops below the specific threshold and then is restored to that threshold during a hydraulic motor movement (an on-board aircraft actuator). The suggested method enables real time evaluation of technical condition attributable to avionic hydraulic drives, is quick and entails no additional expenses.