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Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. The material used for herbal purposes includes lavender flowers (Lavandula flores) containing essential oil (3%), anthocyanins, phytosterols, sugars, minerals, and tannins. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender is variable and depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propagation, and morphological features. The essential oil contains over 300 chemical compounds. The dominant components are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, acetate lavandulol, oci-mene, and cineole. Lavender essential oil has good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and a significant positive effect on the digestive and nervous systems. Lavender extract prevents dementia and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while lavender hydrolate is recommended for the treatment of skin problems and burns.

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. Carlson, A. M. Arnold, D. G. Ives, S. R. Rapp, J. Saxton and O. L. Lopez, Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: A randomized trial, JAMA 302 (2009) 2663-2670; DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.1913. 4. B. Singh, P. Kaur, D. Gopichan, R. D. Singh and P. S. Ahuja, Biology and chemistry of Ginkgo biloba, Fitoterapia 79 (2008) 401-418; DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2008.05.007. 5. M. Ellnain-Wojtaszek, Z. Kruczynski and J. Kasprzak, Investigation of the free radical scavenging activity of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves, Fitoterapia 74 (2003) 1-6; DOI: 10.1016/S0367-326X(02

compounds. J. Nat. Prod., 72, 1220, 2009. 8. Wang X. et al: In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of polyphenols extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus L.). J Sci Food Agric., 94, 1693, 2014. 9. Wansi J. P. et al.: Antimicrobial and antioxidante effects of phenolic constituents from Klainedoxa gabonensis, Pharmaceutical Biology, 48, 1124, 2010. 10. Yu L. et al.: Novel prenylated bichalcone and chalcone from Humulus lupulus and their quinone reductase induction activities. Fitoterapia 93, 115, 2014. 11. Zanoli, P. et al.: Evidence that the acids

1991; 29:113-116. 5. Vedavathy S. Herbal folk medicine of Yanadis of Andhra Pradesh. Ethnobotany 1996; 8:109-111. 6. Sudarsanam G, Siva P. Medicinal ethnobotany of plants used as antidotes by Yanadi tribes in south India. J Herbs Spices Med Pl 1995; 3(1):57-66. 7. Sudhakar A, Madhava Chetty K. Medicinal importance of some angiospermic weeds used by the rural people of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Fitoterapia 1998; LXXIX–B:17-12. 8. Reddy KN, Reddy CS, Trimurthulu G. Ethnobotanical uses for respiratory disorders in Eastern Ghats. Ethnobotan Leaflets

;61:1205-1215. 12. Vu TT, Fredenburgh JC, Weitz JI. Zinc: an important cofactor in haemostasis and thrombosis. Thromb Haemost . 2013;109:421-430. 13. Tlili N, Elfalleh W, Saadaoui E, Khaldi A, Triki S, Nasri N. The caper (Capparis L.): Ethnopharmacology, phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Fitoterapia . 2011;82:93-101.

of the essential oil of Centaurea aladagensis , Fitoterapia , 2007, 78 , 253-254. [7] Wei, H.X.; Gao,W.Y.; Tian, Y.K.; Guan, Y.K.; Huang, M.H.; Cheng, D.L., Neweudesmane sesquiterpene and thiophene derivatives from the roots of Rhaponticum uniflorum, Die Pharmazie , 1997, 52 , 245–247. [8] Akkol, E.K.; Arif, R.; Ergun, F.; Yesilada, E., Sesquiterpene lactones with antinoceptive and antipyretic activity from two Centaurea specirs, Journal of Ethnopharmacology , 2009, 122 , 210–215. [9] Sepulveda, S.; Delhvi, S.; Koch, B.; Zilliken, F., Constituents of