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) (2017). The future of local government in Europe. Lessons from research and practice in 31 countries. Baden-Baden: Nomos. Tiebout, C. M. (1956). A pure theory of local expenditures. Journal of Political Economy, 64 (5), 416–24. Turley, G., Flannery, D., & McNena, S. (2015). A needs and resources assessment of fiscal equalisation in the Irish local government system. The Economic and Social Review, 46 (3), 459–84. Turley, G., & McNena, S. (2016). An analysis of local public finances and the 2014 local government reforms. The Economic and Social Review, 47 (2

References Baskaran T., Tax decentralization and public deficits in OECD countries, J Federalism, 42 (4), 688-707, 2012. Benz A., From joint decision traps to over-regulated federalism: adverse effects of a successful constitutional reform, German Polit, 17 (4), 440-456, 2008. Blöchliger H., Vammalle C., Italy: law 42 on fiscal federalism, In: Reforming fiscal federalism and local government: beyond the zero-sum game, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2012. Bönke T., Jochimsen B., Schröder C., Fiscal equalization and tax enforcement, German Econ Rev

1 Purpose and Outline of the Paper A current German discussion is taken as a motive to apply a wider perspective: Is the existence of large cities linked in some way to the country’s chances for national growth? The German issue: In the substantial fiscal equalization systems between the Länder (states), and between the communities of each individual Land , what might be called a progressive expenditure need scale is applied according to city size. This means that larger cities and consequently also the three citystates are assigned a higher need per capita

References Acosta-Ormaechea, S., and Yoo, J. (2012). Tax composition and growth: A broad cross-country perspective (IMF Working Paper, no. 12/257). Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. Agrawal, D. R., and Foremny, D. (2018). Relocation of the rich: migration in response to top tax rate changes from Spanish reforms. Review of Economics and Statistics . Albouy, D. (2010), Evaluating the Efficiency and Equity of Federal Fiscal Equalization (NBER Working Paper, No. 16144). Asatryan, Z., and Feld, L. P. (2015). Revisiting the link between growth and

Poland in View of the Development Level of Rural Municipalities in Lower Silesian and Lubuskie Voivodeships. In: The International Conference Hradec Economic Days 2013. Economic Development and Management of Regions. Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings, Part III (pp. 288–299). Gaudeamus. Patrzałek, L. (2010). Finanse samorządu terytorialnego (Wyd. 2 zm). Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu. Poniatowicz, M., Wyszkowska, D. (2015). Dysfunction of Fiscal Equalization Mechanisms in the System of Local Government Finances in Poland. Lex

. (2008). The transmission of business cycles Implications for EMU enlargement. The Economics of Transition , 16(3), 559–582. Bargain, O. (2013). Fiscal Union in Europe? Redistributive and Stabilizing Effects of a European Tax-Benefit System and Fiscal Equalization Mechanism. Economic Policy , 28(75), 375–415. Beetsma, R. and Giuliodori, M. (2010). The Macroeconomic Costs and Benefits of the EMU and Other Monetary Unions: An Overview of Recent Research. Journal of Economic Literature , 48(3), 603–641. Begg, I. (2009). Fiscal Federalism, Subsidiarity and the EU Budget

, accessed: April 14, 2014. Bessard, P. (2013), Switzerland’s Reformed Fiscal Equalization System , in: J. Clemens, N. Veldhuis (eds.), Federalism and Fiscal Transfers: Essays on Australia, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States , Fraser Institut, Vancouver. B. C. pp. 43–53, available at: https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/federalism-and-fiscal-transfers-rev.pdf Boettke, P. J. (2014), The Road to Serfdom Revisited, George Mason University Department of Economics Working Paper, No. 14–48, available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol 3 /papers

: The state of the art Journal of Productivity Analysis 13 1 49 78 Tiebout, C. M. (1956): A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures. In: Journal of Political Economy 64, 5, 416–424. Tiebout C. M. 1956 A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures Journal of Political Economy 64 5 416 424 Widmer, P.; Zweifel, P. (2012): Fiscal equalization, tiebout competition, and incentives for efficiency in a federalist country. In: Public Finance Review 40, 1, 3–29. Widmer P. Zweifel P. 2012 Fiscal equalization, tiebout competition, and incentives for efficiency in a federalist country Public

federal government (Finance Ministry), the federal states, the Association of Towns and Cities and the Association of Local Authorities. The currently valid Fiscal Equalization Act 2017 (FAG 2017) regulates fiscal equalisation for the years 2017–2021. See also Finanzausgleichsgesetz 2017 – FAG 2017 ( www.ris.bka.gv.at ). The transparency portal provides an overview of general research funding by the federal states and basic subsidies as well as services for non-profit organisations. Here, you will find a list of the cash benefits financed by the public sector. In the