The subject of the article is the issue of axiological diversity of political movements of the far right, understood on the basis of metapolitics, i.e. religious, philosophical or civilizational values. The far right considered on this ground allows us to define the so-called ideological core, i.e. the characteristics of this political trend. The fundamental features of the far right in this approach are the primacy of spiritual values over material ones and radical social and political anti-egalitarianism, expressed in opposition to subsequent ideologies referring to the egalitarian ideals of the Enlightenment. The opposition to modernity, in its real form, was common to all the factions of the far right. The difference is visible, however, between the supporters of the restoration of old socio-political institutions and those who, under the influence of nihilism, rejected the possibility of returning to the past institutions, postulating the creation of new forms expressing the eternal traditional principles. From this point of view, it is possible to indicate the fundamental paths of development of the far right, which began in the first half of the 20th century, yet still retain their cognitive value in relation to the contemporary movements of this trend.
The author presents an overview of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century in its quantitative aspect. 19 maps were analysed and a common conceptual model linked to the Database of Topographic Objects (DBTO10k) was developed on the basis of catalogues of object types. Quantitative statistics were also prepared for the object types from maps before and after harmonization. Differences between their numbers within the same maps reflect the conceptual variety of said maps. The number of types of objects (before and after harmonization) was then juxtaposed with selected thematic layers: water network, transport network, land cover, buildings, structures, and equipment, land use complexes, localities and other objects. Such factors as scales, publication dates and topographic services which created analysed maps were also taken into consideration. Additionally, the analysed maps demonstrate uneven levels of generalization. Inclusion of objects typical for large-scale cartography on topographic and general maps is one of the distinctive features.
Our paper tries to analyse the way in which the regional identity of art historiography in Alsace came into being in the 20th century. Similarly to Transylvania, Alsace represented a highly disputed territory, being claimed by two hostile nations. We shall focus upon the regionalist point of view, which used to be overshadowed by the official nationalist discourse of the centres, Paris and Berlin. We shall examine the way in which a regional identity was invented through works of art. Regionalist art historians did no longer speak of the existence of French or German art in Alsace, but of the existence of an Alsatian art individualized within European art. We shall also emphasise the role the genius loci and regional geography played in forging this new identity.
biological evolution. By analysing a set of historical documents produced by the Swiss administration in the firsthalfofthe20thcentury, we ask whether emotions can be observed throughout the years at the regional scale of continents and countries. In this sense, we concur with the concept of ›group-level emotion« examined by Mercer, see Jonathan Mercer: »Feeling like a State: social emotion and identity«, in: International Theory 6/3 (2014), pp. 515–535, online at: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1752971914000244 (1. 8. 2018), though our analysis has a different object
the20thCentury. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. Pușcaș, V. (1995). Universitate, societate, modernizare . Organizarea și activitatea științifică a Universității din Cluj, 1919-1940 [University, society, modernization. The organization and scientific activity of the University of Cluj, 1919-1940]. Cluj-Napoca: Presa Universitară Clujeană. Wiggin, G. (1962). Education and Nationalism: A historical interpretation of American education. New York: Mac Graw-Hill.
Philonotis calcarea (Bruch & Schimp.) Schimp. in Poland is a montane species, very rarely occurring in lowland, strictly protected by law. In the Opole Province till this time it has been known from four localities, reported from the 19th and first half of the 20th century. The paper presents description of the new locality and list of stations of P. calcarea in the Opole Province. Current distribution of this species is presented on the map.
This article brings up to date the ceremony of assuming the teacher’s oath, ceremony used to be done during the educational system along the middle of the 19th century, until the first half of the 20th century. We consider that it has been essential to transliterate two oaths (one of Mihai Eminescu, the other of Antonie Cirillo), each of them belonging to one of the two centuries, to demonstrate the perpetuation of this ceremony during almost seven decades, its coerciveness to fullfil being not only a simple solemn demonstration, but something that emerges from responsibility and consciousness of eternal values.
This article presents an analysis of the reasons and the specificities of the development of translation theory in one of the three post-Soviet Baltic countries, Lithuania, since the first half of the 20th century until 1990. The analysis considers the historical and political circumstances characterising the period of Lithuania’s Independence (1918-1940) as well as the Soviet period (1940-1941 and 1944-1990). The discussion of the development of translation theory in Lithuania helps to reveal general features relevant to the context of translation studies in Latvia and Estonia as well, because the historical and political experiences of these Baltic countries have been similar to those of Lithuania.
Previous studies based on English, Russian and Ch inese corpora show that the average word length in texts grows steadily across centuries. These findings are in accordance with our results: the average word length in Arabic texts also grows during the analysed time span (8th century to the first half of the 20th century). Our paper shows the detailed statistics of the word length distribution century by century. The dynamics of the average word length correlates with the dynamics of the average word distribution entropy, which encourages an explanation of the phenomenon based on the Shannonian theory of communication.
The evolution of the genre of violin and piano sonata in the Romanian composition creation in the first half of the 20th century, marked by the tendency towards getting close to the European musical phenomenon by assimilating stylistic influences of Romanticism, especially, of Enescian Romanticism, distinctly manifesting in Violin and Piano Sonata no. 2, op. 45, by Marcel Mihalovici, one of the most renowned Romanian composers settled in Paris, appreciated by the famous contemporaries, such as M.Ravel, V.d’Indy, F. Poulenc etc. Sonata (1941), preceded by a motto in the sonnet of Romantic poet Gérard de Nerval Myrtho: „Je sais pourquoi lá bas lé volcan s’est rouvert…”, impresses through the high emotional tension, metaphorically expressed by the image of the “woken” volcano, figurative suggestiveness of the musical language, architectonic innovativeness, spectacular capitalization of the violin technique in the formula of a violin-piano choir.