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The Possibility of Applying Acoustic Emission Method for Monitoring Lathing Process

Abstract

Nowadays acoustic emission (AE) method is used in many fields of science, including in the diagnosis and monitoring of machining processes such as turning, grinding, milling, etc. Monitoring of turning process allows ensuring stable conditions of treatment. Stable conditions of turning process have a great impact on the quality of the surface. This is especially important during finishing treatment.

The research was carried out on a universal ZMM-SLIVEN CU500MRD lathe centre-using tool with removable insert SANDVIK Coromant WNMG 080408 – WMX Wiper. Lathing process was performed on the shaft of 74 mm in diameter made of S235 steel.

The research was carried out at constant cutting speed v = 230 m/min. Changed parameters were feed f = 0.1; 0.2; 0.4 mm/rev and cutting depth ap = 0.5; 0.75; 1 mm. In the research was used a set of acoustic emission Vallen System. The kit includes: 4 channel signal recorder AMSY 6, two measurement modules ASIP-2/S, preamplifier with a frequency range 20 kHz – 1 MHz and the strengthening of 34dB and AE signal measurement sensor type VS 150M, with a frequency range 100 – 450 kHz. During the study, the acoustic emission (AE) generated during the lathing process were recorded parameters e.g. amplitude, number of events – hits, the effective value of the signal (RMS).

The test results indicate, that the higher instability of the process was during turning with parameters: ap = 0.75 mm and f = 0.1 mm/rev. The study can be the basis for the use of acoustic emission method for monitoring lathing process to ensure stable conditions of that process and the same to obtain a high quality surface.

Open access
Finishing Treatment of Marine Pump Shafts Made of X5CrNi18-10 Steel

Abstract

One of the greatest problems of modern production techniques is the achievement of an appropriate quality at minimal costs and accompanied by the production efficiency increase. Therefore, while designing the production process, the technology used should have a considerable influence on the durability and reliability of machine parts to be produced. During finish treatment, the final dimensions as well as functional properties are imparted to a given element by application of proper treatment type. The engineer has a range of production techniques to choose for the proper surface layer formation. It is crucial to find a suitable solution which will meet the requirements as well as the work conditions of a given machine part. The article presents the results of influence of cutting parameters change on temperature and cutting forces during turning process of stainless steel. A shaft made of 304L stainless steel was used for the research. The cutting process was carried out on a universal CDS 6250 BX-1000 centre lathe. Measurement of cutting forces during lathing process used DKM 2010 turning dynamometer. The turning process was conducted by a cutting tool with CCET09T302R-MF insert by DIJET. During the turning, the following machining parameters were used: cutting speed Vc = 152, 219, 304 m/min, feed f = 0.044, 0.062, 0.083 mm/rev and cutting depth ap = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 mm. The view of the nose radius of cutting tool before and after the turning process was made by the Smartzoom 5 microscope.

Open access
XPS measurements of passive film formed on AISI 316L SS after electropolishing in a magnetic field (MEP)

Abstract

Electrochemical polishing of metals and alloys is one of the most currently used finishing treatments, covering metallic biomaterials with complicated shapes (coronary stents, prostheses, etc.). A standard electropolishing (EP) process has been recently modified by including a magnetic field, and called the magnetoelectropolishing (MEP). Many surface properties and even mechanical features may be modified and improved by MEP. The changes are concerned with the surface film composition which undergo a modification. For the present studies, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was applied to measure the surface film composition on AISI 316L stainless steel. In conclusion both Cr-X/Fe-X compounds ratio as well as Cr/Fe total ratio of the 316L steel after EP and MEP were calculated and compared to reveal the advantage of the magnetic field used.

Open access
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia after previously treated, relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Case Report

Abstract

We present the case of a 71-year-old woman diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who received multiple chemotherapeutic lines and evolved to acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient was Rai stage 0 at the time of the diagnosis and was monitored for almost 9 years. After that, the disease progressed and the patient began chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide combination), obtained complete remission and relapsed one year later after finishing treatment. She received multiple therapeutic regimens, accompanied by multiple infectious complications. After 8 years of evolution since she started chemotherapy, bone marrow aspirate and immunophenotyping revealed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The occurrence of acute leukemia in CLL is rare and may arise from the same clone; however, most cases appear after patients have received chemotherapy, suggesting that they are therapy-related.

Open access
The Influence of Changing of Cutting Parameters on Temperature and Cutting Forces During Turning Process of Stainless Steel With CCET09T302R-MF Insert

Abstract

One of the greatest problems of modern production techniques is the achievement of an appropriate quality at minimal costs and accompanied by the production efficiency increase. Therefore, while designing the production process, the technology used should have a considerable influence on the durability and reliability of machine parts to be produced. During finish treatment, the final dimensions as well as functional properties are imparted to a given element by application of proper treatment type. The engineer has a range of production techniques to choose for the proper surface layer formation. It is crucial to find a suitable solution which will meet the requirements as well as the work conditions of a given machine part. The article presents the results of influence of change of cutting parameters on temperature and cutting forces during turning process of stainless steel. A shaft made of 304L stainless steel was used for the research. The cutting process was carried out on a universal CDS 6250 BX-1000 centre lathes. Measurement of cutting forces during lathing process used DKM 2010 turning dynamometer. The turning process was conducted by a cutting tool with CCET09T302R-MF insert by DIJET. During the turning, the following machining parameters were used: cutting speed Vc = 226 m/min, feed f = 0.044, 0.062, 0.083, 0.106 mm/rev and cutting depth ap = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mm. The chemical composition of steel was measured by Solaris-ccd plus optical spectrometer.

Open access
The Influence of Changing of Treatment Condition on Surface Roughness Parameter During Turning Process by Wiper Insert

Abstract

One of the greatest problems of modern production techniques is the achievement of an appropriate quality at minimal costs and accompanied by the production efficiency increase. Therefore, while designing the production process. The technology used should have a considerable influence on the durability and reliability of machine parts to be produced. During finish treatment, the final dimensions as well as functional properties are imparted to a given element by application of proper treatment type. The engineer has a range of production techniques to choose for the proper surface layer formation. It is crucial to find a suitable solution which will meet the requirements as well as the work conditions of a given machine part. The article presents the results of influence of change of cutting parameters on surface roughness parameter during turning process of stainless steel. A shaft made of 304L stainless steel was used for the research. The chemical composition of steel was measured by Solaris-ccd plus optical spectrometer. The cutting process was carried out on a universal CDS 6250 BX-1000 centre lathes. Measurement of surface roughness was carried out by T8000 profilometer. The turning process was conducted by a cutting tool with Wiper insert. During the turning, the following machining parameters were used: cutting speed Vc [m/min], feed f [mm/rev], cutting depth ap [mm] and additionally changed nose radius r [mm], and tool cutting edge angle ᵪr [°]. The results of measurements of Ra parameter underwent statistic analysis. The calculations were conducted by Statistica software.

Open access
Investigation into the UV-Protection of Woven Fabrics Composed of Metallic Weft Yarns

Abstract

The destructive effects of sun UV radiation on human skins are now very clear to everyone. Most of the present studies were focused on the fabrics’ structural parameters such as density, warp and weft yarns finenesses, fabric pattern and printing or finishing treatments applied to the fabrics. The aim of this work is achieving a technique through which the produced fabrics possess a higher UV-protection ability. For this purpose, two different metals including aluminium and copper yarns were employed in fabrics production process and their effects on UV-protection ability of the produced fabrics were investigated. Six different fabric samples comprised of either cotton/polyester, nylon yarns as the warp yarns as well as either aluminium or copper yarns as the weft yarns were produced. Using the spectrophotometer technique, which is known as one of the UPF measuring method, the absorbency and reflectivity of fabrics within the specified range of electromagnetic waves (specially the UV radiation) were determined. The results illustrated that the higher UV absorbency was related to the fabric possessing the copper yarns in their structures. It was concluded that the absorption ability of nylon fabrics is higher than that of the cotton/polyester samples.

Open access
The Influence of Changing of Cutting Parameters on Temperature and Cutting Forces During Turning Process by CCET09T302R-MF Insert

Abstract

One of the greatest problems of modern production techniques is the achievement of an appropriate quality at minimal costs and accompanied by the production efficiency increase. Therefore, while designing the production process, the technology used should have a considerable influence on the durability and reliability of machine parts to be produced. During finish treatment, the final dimensions as well as functional properties are imparted to a given element by application of proper treatment type. The engineer has a range of production techniques to choose for the proper surface layer formation. It is crucial to find a suitable solution which will meet the requirements as well as the work conditions of a given machine part. The article presents the results of influence of change of cutting parameters on temperature and cutting forces during turning process of stainless steel. A shaft made of 304L stainless steel was used for the research. The cutting process was carried out on a universal CDS 6250 BX-1000 centre lathes. Measurement of cutting forces during turning process used DKM 2010 turning dynamometer. A cutting tool conducted the turning process with CCET09T302R-MF insert by DIJET. During the turning, the following machining parameters were used: cutting speed Vc = 226 m/min, feed f = 0.044; 0.062; 0.083; 0.106 mm/rev and cutting depth ap = 0.375; 0.625; 0.875 mm. The chemical composition of steel was measured by Solaris-ccd plus optical spectrometer. The Smartzoom 5 microscope made the view of the nose radius of cutting tool.

Open access
Burnishing Treatment of the Faying Surface of the Pipe Flange

Abstract

On ships for connecting pipes in seawater installations, fire and other installations and for joining pipes to fittings or receivers, flange-type couplings are often used. It is important to ensure tightness between pipe flanges (ASME). If the system pressure does not exceed 1.6 MPa, “open” flange packing using flat gasket rings is used. Rubber, textolite, polyvinyl chloride or metals and alloys with good plastic properties (e.g. aluminum, copper, Monel alloy, Armco iron) can be used as a sealant material (depending on pressure in installation). The tightness of the joint determines the quality (geometric structure) of the surface of the flange at the contact point with the gasket. Reduced roughness ensures even distribution of surface mounting pressures on flange joint gasket. This article deals with the assessment of the use of burnishing as a finishing treatment for flange faces and the selection of rolling parameters. Samples used for the tests were made of S235J2 carbon steel. Burnishing treatment was done with the SKUV20 tool. The working element of the tool was in the shape of a roller. Burning was performed using the following parameters: the burnishing force (Fn) – 600 N, 800 N and 1000 N; Feed rate (f): 0.08 mm/rev, 0.13 mm/rev, 0.24 mm/rev; the speed of burnishing (vn) – for a diameter of 55 mm – was 45 m/min, 65 m/min, 78 m/min. The research was carried out on the basis of trivalent plan Hartley. As the output variables (dependent variables), the roughness reduction index (KRa) and the (Su) were adopted. Based on the multiple regression analysis, it was found that the greatest impact on reducing roughness and surface hardening of burnished material has burnishing force. The dependence between dependent variables and Fn is proportional. The effect of the burnishing speed (vn) on the values of KRA and Su parameters is statistically insignificant. Machining of the active surface of the pipe flanges should be carried out with a burnishing force of 1 kN, a feed rate of 0.08 mm/rev and a burnishing speed of 45 m/min.

Open access
The Effect Of Weave Construction On Tear Strength Of Woven Fabrics

.V., Ranganathan, S.R., Chipalkatti, V.B. and Maji, M.R., (1968), Studies in Wear Life of Normal- and Special-Finished Woven Cotton Fabrics: Part II: A Theoretical Study of Tear Performance in Service, Textile Research Journal, vol. 38, 11: pp. 1118-1130. [13] Hu, H. and Xu, Y., (2008), Tearing Properties Of Coated Multi-Axial Warp Knitted Fabric, AUTEX Research Journal, Vol 8, No.1, March, 13-16. [14] Khedher, F., Dhouib, S., Msahli, S., Sakli F., (2009), The Influence of Industrial Finishing Treatments and Their Succession on The Mechanical Properties of Denim

Open access