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The start and the turn are factors that influence performance in different swimming disciplines. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of selected time parameters of the start and the turn with sport performance of 100 m and 1 500 m freestyle finalists in the Olympic Games 2016. Monitored parameters of the start were the start reaction, time under water after the start, and time at a distance of 15 m after the start. The monitored parameters of the turn were the time of 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn, the time under water after the turn, and time reached at a distance of 15 m after the turn. There was any significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed start indicators. The significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed turn indicators was time 5 m before the turn r = 0.952 (p = 0.000); the duration of the turn r = 0.830 (p = 0.011); time at a distance of 15 m after the turn r = 0.886 (p = 0.003). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed start indicators was time under water after the start r = −0.714 (p = 0.047). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed turn indicators was the duration of the turn was r = 0.905 (p = 0.002). The results point out the existing relations between 100 m freestyle and time under water after start and duration of the turn. And for 1 500 m existing relations with time 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn and time at a distance of 15 m after the turn. Therefore, our recommendations for sports practice include development of speed, power and coordination skills with technical execution of the start and the turn into regular swimming training.

) explore the influences of tactical defensive modelling and contextual variables (i.e., opponent quality, stage competition, match status and halves) in the teams’ defensive patterns. Methods Participants For this study, we collected tactical and technical data from the play-off matches of the four semi-finalist teams of the 2014 FIFA World Cup (Germany, Argentina, the Netherlands and Brazil), all known as successful teams ( Delgado-Bordonau et al., 2013 ). For each team, four observations were analysed through the regular time of play (90 minutes plus injury time) of 12

The purpose of this investigation was to compare and determine the relevance of the morphological characteristics and variability of running speed parameters (stride length and stride frequency) between Usain Bolt’s three best 100 m performances. Based on this, an attempt was made to define which factors determine the performance of Usain Bolt's sprint and, therefore, distinguish him from other sprinters. We analyzed the previous world record of 9.69 s set in the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the current record of 9.58 s set in the 2009 Berlin World Championships in Athletics and the O lympic record of 9.63 s set in 2012 London Olympics Games by Usain Bolt. The application of VirtualDub Programme allowed the acquisition of basic kinematical variables such as step length and step frequency parameters of 100 m sprint from video footage provided by NBC TV station, BBC TV station. This data was compared with other data available on the web and data published by the Scientific Research Project Office responsible on behalf of IAAF and the German Athletics Association (DVL). The main hypothesis was that the step length is the main factor that determines running speed in the 10 and 20 m sections of the entire 100 m distance. Bolt’s anthropometric advantage (body height, leg length and liner body) is not questionable and it is one of the factors that makes him faster than the rest of the finalists from each three competitions. Additionally, Bolt’s 20 cm longer stride shows benefit in the latter part of the race. Despite these factors, he is probably able to strike the ground more forcefully than rest of sprinters, relative to their body mass, therefore, he might maximize his time on the ground and to exert the same force over this period of time. This ability, combined with longer stride allows him to create very high running speed - over 12 m/s (12.05 -12.34 m/s) in some 10 m sections of his three 100 m performances. These assumption confirmed the application of Ballerieich's formula for speed development. In most 10 m sections of the 100 m sprint, the step length was the parameter that significantly determined the increase of maximal running speed, therefore, distinguishing Bolt from the other finalists.


The Australian stream cipher NLSv2 [Hawkes, P.-Paddon, M.-Rose, G. G.-De Vries, M. W.: Primitive specification for NLSv2, Project eSTREAM web page, 2007, 1-25] is a 32-bit word oriented stream cipher that was quite successful in the stream ciphers competition-the project eSTREAM. The cipher achieved Phase 3 and successfully accomplished one of the main requirements for candidates in Profile 1 (software oriented proposals)-to have a better performance than AES in counter mode. However the cipher was not chosen into the final portfolio [Babbage, S.-De Canni`ere, Ch.-Canteaut, A.-Cid, C.-Gilbert, H.-Johansson, T.-Parker, M.-Preneel, B.-Rijmen, V.-Robshaw, M.: The eSTREAM Portfolio, Project eSTREAM web page, 2008], because its performance was not so perfect when comparing with other finalist. Also there is a security issue with a high correlation in the used S-Box, which some effective distinguishers exploit. In this paper, a practical demonstration of the distinguishing attack against the smaller version of the cipher is introduced. In our experiments, we have at disposal a machine with four cores (Intel® CoreTM Quad @ 2.66 GHz) and single attack lasts about 6 days. We performed successful practical experiments and our results demonstrate that the distingushing attack against the smaller version is working.


Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m) and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000-2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10.3±0.2% versus 9.7±0.3%, p<0.01), but did not differ for Swiss swimmers (p>0.05). Sex-related differences in swimming speed decreased with increasing race distance for both short- and long-course events for Swiss athletes, and for FINA athletes in long-course events. Performance improved significantly (p<0.05) during 2000-2011 for FINA men competing in either course length and FINA females competing in short-course events, but not for Swiss swimmers. Overall, the results showed that men and women individual medley swimmers, competing at both national and international levels, have faster average swimming speeds on short courses than on long courses, for both 200 m and 400 m distances. FINA athletes demonstrate an improving performance in the vast majority of individual medley events, while performance at national level seems to have reached a plateau during 2000-2011

The Steps of Slovenian Organisations on the Way to Business Excellence

This research was carried out among the winners of the Slovenian business excellence prize (PRSPO), finalists and those who received special diplomas as a recognition level reached by applicants in implementing the business excellence model. Based on the findings of the research, we defined eight steps that organizations can consider as a guide on the path towards excellence.

The purpose of the study was to examine how the previous winners of the PRSPO began their journey towards excellence, which were the key factors, what problems they encountered and how they managed to win the diploma or award.

The analysis of the survey showed that the ISO 9001 standard is considered a first step towards the Slovenian business excellence award - in fact, it is a prerequisite for further improvements in the organization. The second step involves top management commitment and support for the introduction of excellence into business processes. The top management, in cooperation with all the employees, defines the areas for improvement and also confirms the method of implementation, both conceptually and financially. It is also necessary to take environmental aspects into consideration, which is provided by a third step along with the introduction of the ISO 14001. Once an organization defines the processes, it begins to introduce the business excellence model in the fourth step and carries out the self-assessment process. The key opportunities for improvement identified by the self-assessment process are further introduced in the business. In doing so, the organization can use various quality management approaches (the fifth step) and the first application for the PRSPO. In the sixth step, the organization encourages its employees to follow continuous education and innovation and, in the seventh step, participates again in the competition for the Slovenian business excellence award. As the required business excellence level is achieved, the organization receives the award for business excellence (PRSPO).

Elite Young Team Players' Coping, Motivation and Perceived Climate Measures

The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast coping skills, motivational profiles and perceived climate in elite young ice hockey, soccer, water polo and volleyball players. It was also our aim to examine how male and female athletes differ in the above mentioned psychometric measures. Men's soccer (n=23) and ice hockey (n=20), and also women's volleyball (n=15) and water polo (13) players ranged in age from 16 to 18 years (M age=17.17, SD=.85). Each team was a finalist in last year's national championship for their age group. The instruments used in this study included the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2), The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), and the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28). Cooperative learning does not tend to be high, as one would expect in elite team players. Ice hockey and soccer players usually had higher psychometric measures than water polo and volleyball players. Also, male athletes demonstrate better ACSI-28, PMCSQ-2, and SMS measures than their female counterparts in many of the variables. Amotivation seems to be the most important decisive factor both among team sports and male and female participants. Also, our results prove that there are major differences between young elite male and female team players, so coaches' work in most aspects of their work should be gender-specific. Coaches of youth teams have to understand the motivational factors and coping strategies their athletes demonstrate in order to optimally organize and plan the teaching-learning process in their exercises, especially focus on cooperative task-solving exercises.

References [1] DÉNES, J. - KEEDWELL, A. D.: Latin Squares and their Applications , Acad. Press, New York, 1974. [2] DVORSKÝ, J. - OCHODKOVÁ, E. - SNÁŠEL, V.: Hash function based on quasigroups , in: Proc. of Mikulášska kryptobesídka, Praha, 2001, pp. 27-36. (In Czech) [3] DVORSKÝ, J. - OCHODKOVÁ, E. - SNÁŠEL, V.: Hash functions based on largequasigroups , in: Proc. of Velikonoční kryptologie, Brno, 2002, pp. 1-8. (In Czech) [4] GLIGOROSKI, D. - MARKOVSKI, S. - KNAPSKOG, S. J.: The stream cipherEdon80 , in: New Stream Cipher Designs: The eSTREAM Finalists

Designs - The eSTREAM Finalists, (M. Robshaw, and O. Billet, eds.) LNCS Vol. 4986, Springer, Heidelberg 2008. [9] ZAJAC, P.-J ´OKAY, M.: On S-boxes with low multiplicative complexity. in: Tatracrypt 2012 : 12th Central European Conference on Cryptology. Smolenice, Slovak Republic, July 2012, Slovak Academy of Sciences pp. 47-48.

old—30%) i.e. those who have completed the secondary school course in geography. Younger, from 1st and 2nd classes (16—17 year old) were less frequent participants and fewer of them enter the finals. This was understandable since the competitions questions covered the whole secondary school geography course which it is hard to learn on one's own. The finalists came from various social environments and different parts of Poland. Their schools were located in big cities of more than 500,000 inhabitants (21.5%) and between 100,000 and 500,000 inhabitants (24