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-roku LAURENSON L., (2014), Culture’s impact on social media adoption, [online:20 September 2019], https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/cultures-impact-on-social-media-adoption LEWANDOWSKI E., (2007), Co wiemy o charakterze Polaków?, „Polityka”, [online: 10 October 2019], https://www.polityka.pl/tygodnikpolityka/spoleczenstwo/216105,2,co-wiemy-o-charakterze-polakow.read?page=52&-moduleId=4686 MALINOWSKI B., (2016), Jak Facebook zamyka nas w bańce informacyjnej. Algorytm filtrujący newsfeed a zjawisko filter bubble, „Zarządzanie mediami”, Tom 4(1)2016, pp. 15

that challenges their existing beliefs, attitudes, or interests (challenging information). Instead, an individual becomes insulated in a filter bubble: a “personal ecosystem of information that's been catered by these algorithms to who they think you are” ( The Daily Dish, 2010 : para. 1), or a “unique universe of information for each of us” ( Pariser, 2011 : 9). The existence of filter bubbles has often been asserted and taken for granted among journalists, politicians, and scholars alike. Ironically, both research funding and research papers already exist that

. Political Communication , 10: 101–120. Colleoni, Elanor, Alessandro Rozza, and Adam Arvidsson. 2014. Echo Chamber or Public Sphere? Predicting Political Orientation and Measuring Political Homophily in Twitter Using Big Data. Journal of Communication 64 (2): 317–32. Eveland, William P., Krisztina Marton, and Mihye Seo. 2004. Moving Beyond ‘Just the Facts’: The Influence of Online News on the Content and Structure of Public Affairs Knowledge. Communication Research 31(1): 82–108. Flaxman, Seth, Sharad Goel, and Justin M. Rao. 2016. Filter Bubbles, Echo Chambers, and

References Adee, S. (2016). How can Facebook and its users burst the ‘filter bubble’? from Newscientist: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2113246-how-can-facebook-and-its-users-burst-the-filter-bubble/ Accessed on 11.11.2018. Allcott, H. and Gentzkow, M. (2017), “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election”, Journal of Economic Perspective, Volume 31, Number: Spring 2017, Pages 211–236. Amnesty International Report 2014/15, “The state of the World’s Human Rights” from http://haqqi.info/check_1.php?t=research_paper&f=HRIDGR0368_WorldHuman-Rights_En_2015

network, clusters with an E-I Index of +1 are unlikely to occur; nonetheless, the relative differences in E-I Index values between clusters offer a useful measure of how inward- or outward-looking the members of each cluster are. The analysis of such interconnectivity between clusters is important especially in the context of present debates about ‘echo chambers’ ( Sunstein 2009 ) and ‘filter bubbles’ ( Pariser 2012 ). Unfortunately, the ‘echo chamber’ and ‘filter bubble’ concepts remain poorly defined in current literature: while Sunstein’s books Republic.com 2

) ‘Introduction: The Materiality of Communication’, pp.3-16 in Packer, Jeremy & Crofts Wiley, Stephen B. (eds) Communication Matters: Materialist Approaches to Media, Mobility, and Networks. London: Routledge. Pariser, Eli (2011) The Filter Bubble. What the Internet is Hiding from Us. London: Penguin Books. Pimple, Kenneth (2014) ‘Introduction: The Impacts, Benefits, and Hazards of PICT’, pp. 1-12 in Pimple, Kenneth B. (ed.) Emerging Pervasive Information and Communication Technologies (PICT): Ethical Challenges, Opportunities and Safeguards. New York: Springer. Pötzsch, Holger

1 Introduction Online social media such as Facebook and Twitter are not merely passive conduits of information, they also play an active role in its dissemination and curation ( Xia, Yu, Gao, Gu, & Liu, 2017 ; Liu & Turtle, 2013 ). Algorithmic curation, that is, matching information to user characteristics and preferences, can result in the “filter bubble” ( Liu, Xia, Yu, Guo, & Sun, 2016 ). While the world is becoming more and more globalized, users still get trapped in their own personalized bubble. They are exposed only to confirming opinions and information

. (2017), Elements of strategic social media marketing: A holistic framework, [in:] Journal of Business Research, vol. 70, pp.118-126. FLAXMAN S., GOEL S., RAO J.M. (2016), Filter bubbles, echo chambers, and online news consumption, [in:] Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 80, pp. 298–320. FLYNN L., JALALI A., MOREAU K.A. (2015), Learning theory and its application to the use of social media in medical education, [in:] Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 91, pp. 556–560. FUSTER H., CHAMARRO A., OBERST U. (2017), Fear of Missing Out, online social networking and mobile

of “echo chambers” (e.g. Sunstein, 2009 ) or “filter bubbles” (e.g. Pariser, 2011 ) on communication patterns. Figure 1 Follower–followee network among the best-connected accounts in the Australian Twittersphere Comment: Selected clusters labelled according to their thematic focus (reproduced from Bruns et al., 2017 ) One day in the life of a national Twittersphere We turn first to an analysis of the overall activity levels across the Australian Twittersphere on 22 March 2017. This provides a unique insight into how Twitter is used within a specific national

and increasing competition. In the 1980s and 1990s, when media markets were liberalized, concerns erupted over the growth of huge media corporations ( Alger, 1998 ), the tabloidization of print journalism ( Esser, 1999 ) and the commercialization and Americanization of television programming ( McQuail & Siune, 1986 ). From the early 2000s, new challenges have included the rise of digital intermediaries ( Braun & Gillespie, 2011 ), fragmentation ( Papacharissi, 2002 ) and the impact of algorithms, the latter epitomized in concepts such as filter bubbles ( Parisier