Angel M. Dzhambov, Donka D. Dimitrova and Elena D. Dimitrakova
BACKGROUND: Many women are exposed daily to high levels of occupational and residential noise, so the effect of noise exposure on pregnancy should be considered because noise affects both the fetus and the mother herself. However, there is a controversy in the literature regarding the adverse effects of occupational and residential noise on pregnant women and their fetuses. AIM: The aim of this study was to conduct systematic review of previously analyzed studies, to add additional information omitted in previous reviews and to perform meta-analyses on the effects of noise exposure on pregnancy, birth outcomes and fetal development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Previous reviews and meta-analyses on the topic were consulted. Additionally, a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Internet was carried out. Twenty nine studies were included in the meta-analyses. Quality effects meta-analytical model was applied. RESULTS: Women exposed to high noise levels (in most of the studies ≥ 80 dB) during pregnancy are at a significantly higher risk for having small-for-gestational-age newborn (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.38), gestational hypertension (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.58) and infant with congenital malformations (RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.79). The effect was not significant for preeclampsia, perinatal death, spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with previous findings regarding a higher risk for small-for-gestational-age. They also highlight the significance of residential and occupational noise exposure for developing gestational hypertension and especially congenital malformations.
Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Ristić, Sandra Singh and Verica Milošević
during fetaldevelopment. Mol Med 1996; 2: 735–44.
18. Deayton JM, Young IR, Hollingworth SA, White A, Crosby SR, Thorburn GD. Effect of late hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection on the development of the HPA axis in the ovine fetus and the initiation of parturition. J Neuroendocrinol 1994; 6: 25–31.
19. Challis JR, Sloboda D, Matthews SG, Holloway A, Alfaidy N, Patel FA, Whittle W, Fraser M, Moss TJ, Newnham J. The fetal placental hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, parturition and post natal health. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001; 185: 135–44.
20. Ristić N
Introduction: Ultrasound assessment of fetal heart size (FHS) is widely used and recommended in many guidelines of fetal echocardiography due to its clinical value. The aim of this study was an analysis of some fetal heart measurements: ratio of heart area to chest area (HA/ CA) and transversal diameter of heart (AP) and their correlation to gestational age.
Material and methods: This retrospective study was based on database of records of ultrasound and echocardiographic examinations performed in our unit and included fetuses between 15th and 39th week of gestation with no evidence of heart defect or any abnormality.
Results: 609 ultrasound examinations were analyzed. The mean HA/CA was 0,30 ± 0,015, with no statistical difference between female and male (p>0,05), and seemed to be relatively constant with slight increase with advancing gestational age. The AP diameter in whole group correlated with gestational age (r=0,94) and there was no difference related to the fetuses gender.
Conclusion: The correlation of AP diameter and relative constancy of HA/CA ratio with gestational age presented in our normograms could be used for monitoring fetal development, but also for fetal cardiomegaly assessment.
The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death) and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.
M. Sasváriová, B. Tyukos-Kaprinay, L. Salvaras, K. Belovičová, E. Bögi, V. Knezl, M. Barteková, T. Stankovičová and M. Dubovický
. Prenatal psychostimulant and antidepressant exposure and the risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77(11):1538-1545.
 Sari Y and Zhou FC. Serotonin and its transporter on proliferation of fetal heart cells. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2003;21(8):417-424.
 St-Pierre J, Laurent L, King S, Vaillancourt C. Effects of prenatal maternal stress on serotonin and fetaldevelopment. Placenta. 2016;48(30):S66-71.
 Szuran TF, Pliška V, Pokorny J, Welzl H. Prenatal stress in rats: effects on plasma corticosterone, hippocampal
Agata Chamier-Gliszczyńska, Sandra Kałużna, Katarzyna Stefańska, Piotr Celichowski, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Jana Zakova, Marie Machatkova, Michal Jeseta and Michał Nowicki
The mammalian oocytes formation begins in the ovary during the fetaldevelopment. In the perinatal period the primary oocyte is surrounded by the epithelial cells which form a primordial follicle [ 1 ]. After oocytes start maturation, their nuclei–germinal vesicles (GV) break down and chromosomes condense [ 2 ]. Each oocyte in the ovary is arrested by inhibitory signals in the prophase I during the first meiotic division [ 3 ]. This arrest occurs after chromosome pairing and crossing-over process between parental chromosomes [ 4 ] The factors
Radka Wilhelmova, Drahoslava Hruba and Lenka Vesela
nutritional regulation of maternal health and fetaldevelopment. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2012; 26: 4-26.
35. Lynn F. Associations between maternal characteristics and pregnancyrelated stress among low-risk mothers: an observational cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud 2011; 48: 620-7.
36. Benelam B. Physical activity in pregnancy. Nutr Bull 2011; 36: 370-2.
37. Gaston A, Vamos CH. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada. Matern Child Health J 2013; 17: 477
Eduard Ujházy, Jana Navarová, Michal Dubovický, Štefan Bezek and Mojmír Mach
Important issues in developmental toxicity testing
Studies of individual development and its possible deterioration have been the concern since the 19th century, when Etienne Geoffroy de Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) with his pioneer experiments opened the door for future experimental teratologists. Later scientists, focused on environmental agents which can alter embryonic and fetal development, such hyperthermia, malnutrition, pharmaceuticals, microbial toxins etc. Although the history of teratology involves many notable scientists, it has gained prominence after the big thalidomide tragedy in 1961. Principles of teratology were proposed later by James Wilson in his monograph Environment and Birth Defects (Wilson, 1973).
The aim of this work is to evaluate the intensity of possible secular trends among the five subsequent cohorts of Wrocław (Poland) children aged 0, 6, 12 and 24 months. This document describes secular changes in the body length, weight and the Rohrer’s index.
Material: Research material represent the longitudinal studies of five consecutive birth cohorts. The first study involved children born during 1963-1965, and the last in 2003-2005. All of the studies were related to the same social group and were conducted using the same methodology.
There are differences in the intensity and direction of the secular trends in children depending on their age. In both sexes the body length of newborns kept increasing until the end of the nineties and decreased in the last decade. The body weight did not change during the 40-year period. This suggests an important role of maternal regulator in fetal development and therefore no clear response to external environmental factors. Secular changes such as the body length and weight, which are the most adequate to the economic changes in Poland, were observed in children aged 6 and 12 months. It may be a result of their highest ecosensitivity during this period. However, there have not been any clear trends observed in the 24 months age group. This may be due to the increasing participation of genetic factors in the development of the child.
Marko Jović, Ivan Nikolić, Vera Todorović, Aleksandar Petrović, Vladimir Petrović and Tijana Denčić
In the reference literature, there are a few studies on the development of the lymphatic system in the liver, especially human. This study aims to establish the presence, time of appearance, distribution and representation of expression D2-40 molecule – a marker of lymph vessels endothelial cells during the fetal period of the human liver development.
The livers obtained from 20 human fetuses (10 male and 12 female), aged 12-37 gestational weeks, constituted our study material. Paraffin sections, 4 µm thick, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis, and with LSAB2/HRP method for immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 monoclonal antibody to mark lymphatic endothelial cells. The presence of lymphatic vessels was determined by morphometry, calculating their numerical and volume density.
The study showed that expression of D2-40 molecule was absent in the liver lymphatic vessels in the first trimester of development, while in the second trimester intensive D2-40 immunoreactivity was observed in the lymph vessels of the liver capsule, and low D2-40 immunopositivity of the lymph vessels in large portal spaces. In the third trimester, intensive D2-40 immunoreactivity was observed in the lymph vessels of the liver capsule and in the endothelium of numerous lymphatic vessels of various shape and size, located in the smaller and larger portal areas. Volume and numerical density of lymphatic vessels in the portal areas of the liver during fetal development increased from the second to the third trimester of pregnancy, which was proportional to the increase in volume density of the hepatic portal spaces. Based on the obtained results, a conclusion may be drawn that the lymph vessels in the liver can be identified in the first half of the second trimester, and their number was growing proportionally by the end of pregnancy.