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References Aass P. 1972 - Age determination and year-class fluctuations of cisco, Coregonus albula L., in Mjosa hydroelectric reservoir, Norway - Rep. Inst. Freshw. Res. Drottningholm 52: 5-22. Anwand K. 1998 - Comparisons of annual gonad cycle and fecundity between nominate and deepwater forms of vendace ( Coregonus albula L.) in Lake Stechlin (State of Brandenburg, Germany) - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 14: 97-100. Backiel T., Zawisza J. 1988 - Variations of fecundity of roach ( Rutilus rutilus ) and perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) in Polish lakes - Pol. Arch

References Akhteruzzaman M., Kohinoor A.H.M., Islam M.S., Modak P.C. 1998 – Observations on the induced breeding of indigenous small fish, Bhagna ( Cirrhinus reba Ham.) in Bangladesh – Progress. Agricult. 9: 281-284. Akther S., Akther S. 2011 – Some aspects of the reproductive biology and sex-ratio of Cirrhina reba (Hamilton) (Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) – Univ. J. Zool. Rajshahi Univ.30: 21-24. Alam M., Pathak J.K. 2010 – Assessment of fecundity and gonadosomatic index of commercially important fish, Labeo rohita from Ramganga river – Int. J. Pharma. Bio

References Abrahamsson S.A.A. 1971 - Density, growth and reproduction in populations of Astacus astacus and Pacifastacus leniusculus in an isolated pond - Oikos 22: 373-380. Ahlmer B., Karlsson A.S. 1980 - Der Signalkrebs im Regierungsbezirk - Jonkoping. Mimeo, Sweden, 18 p. Brinck P. 1983 - Sture Abrahamsson Memorial Lecture: An ecologist’s approach to dealing with the loss of Astacus astacus - Freshw. Crayfish 5: 21-37. Chybowski £. 2007 - Morphometrics, fecundity, density, and feeding intensity of the spinycheek crayfish, Orconectes limosus (Raf.) in natural

isolate applied to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders. Int . J . Probiotics Prebiotics , 2(4): 233 – 238 S trompfová , V., L auková , A., M arciňáková , M., V asilková , Z. (2010): Testing of probiotic and bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria towards Eimeria sp. Pol . J . Vet . Sci ., 13(2): 389 – 391 S ukhdeo M. V. K. (1991): The relationship between intestinal location and fecundity in adult Trichinella spiralis . Int. J. Parasitol., 21(7): 855–858. DOI: 10.1016/0020-7519(91)90154-Y Š ušković , J., K os , B., B eganović , J., L eboš P


A successful inbreeding and hybrid breeding strategy in tree improvement requires that 1) inbreeding (selfing) can produce superior inbred lines (effective purging of deleterious alleles), 2) there is heterosis among crosses of inbred lines, 3) early selection between lines is effective, and 4) inbreeding will not substantially reduce reproductive ability. We have previously reported that inbreeding depression on growth was lower in radiata pine relative to other conifers and segregation in the first two-generations of selfs generated superior inbred trees. In addition, we have observed that early selection among inbred trees (lines) was more effective than in out-crossed populations and there was an apparent heterosis in radiata pine. In this study, the effect of inbreeding on the reproductive ability in young and adult trees of radiata pine has been quantified from five populations of varied inbreeding levels (F =0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75). It was observed that the effects of inbreeding depression on fecundity was higher at a young age than at older age and inbreeding depression at a young age is due to two factors: 1) a delay of reproductive age (about 8.3, and 8.5% of trees delayed for F =0.5 and F =0.75 populations, respectively) and 2) a true reduction of flowering trees (6.7 and 13.1% more trees having no flowers for F =0.5 and F =0.75 populations than F =0 population, respectively). Despite significant inbreeding depression on the percentage of female reproductive trees and the number of cones on adult trees, overall inbreeding depression on fecundity was low in radiata pine. One founder clone contributed most of the significant inbreeding depression observed for the population of eight founder clones. It was observed that fecundity varied more widely among the eight clones than among the inbreeding level (self and outcross).

References Aass P. 1972 - Age determination and year-class fluctuations of cisco, Coregonus albula L., in the Mjosa hydroelectric reservoir, Norway - Rep. Inst. Freshw. Research Drottiningholm 52: 5-22. Amundsen P.A., Staldvik F.J., Reshetnikov Y.S., Kashulin N., Lukin A., Bøhn T., Sandlund O.T., Popova O.A. 1999 - Invasion of vendace Coregonus albula in a subarctic watercourse - Biol. Conser. 88: 405-413. Anwand K. 1998 - Comparisons of annual gonad cycle and fecundity between nominate and deepwater forms of vendace ( Coregonus albula L.) in Lake Stechlin

vodojomov Kaliningradskoj oblasti - FGU Zapbaltrybvod: 3-19 (in Russian). Harrod C., Griffiths D. 2004 - Reproduction and fecundity of the Irish pollan ( Coregonus autumnalis Pallas, 1776), a threatened lake coregonid - Ann. Zool. Fenn. 41: 117-124. Hartmann J., Quoss H. 1993 - Fecundity of whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus ) during the eu-and oligotrophication of Lake Constance - J. Fish Biol. 43: 81-87. Heese T. 1990 - Gonad development and fecundity of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L. 1758) from the Pomeranian Bay - Acta Icht. Piscat. 20: 3-12. Kamler E. 2005

, fecundity, and spawning frequency in Lutjanus vittus (Quoy and Gaimard) from the North West Shelf of Australia - Fish. Bull. 91: 224-236. Dominguez-Petit R. 2007 - Study of Reproductive Potential of Merluccius merluccius in the Galician Shelf - Doctoral Thesis, University of Vigo (Spain), 253 p.+ xxii. Fowler A.J., Mcleay L., Short D.A. 2000 - Spatial variation in size and age structures and reproductive characteristics of the King Gorge whiting (Percoidi: Sillahinidae) in South Australian waters - Mar. Freshwat. Res. 51: 11-22. Ganias K., Somarakis S., Machias A

. U., Utibe, D. I. (2011): Preliminary study on the aspects of the biology of Snakehead fish, Prachanna obscura in a Nigerian wetland. African Journal of Food and Agriculture, 1, 1-4. Eyo, J. E., Mgbenka, B. O. (1992): Aspects of the biology of Clarias gariepinus in Anambra River Basin. 1. Oocyte diameter, fecundity and sex ratio. Journal of Agricultural Science Technology 2, 1, 47 – 51. Froese, R. (2006): Cube law, condition factor and weight– length relationships: history, meta-analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22, 241–253 Garba, O


The following proofs of Goldfish more powerful reproductive potential are given: high individual and relative fecundity, adequate fractional spawning process resulting in numerous off spring, represented by different generations of hatchlings, little number of individuals not participating in reproduction, prevailing number of fish eggs in females’ ovaries, larger fraction of impregnated roe. All the above mentioned factors allow claiming that the Prussian carp is being replaced due to its low replacement ability. Perhaps for that reason Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) choose small isolated water bodies, where it makes small populations, backed up by successful spawning with a single male of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758).