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The aim of the study is to investigate the serum levels of adipokines-resistin and visfatin in patients with metabolic syndrome. A prospective study was performed, including 153 (103 female, 50 male) subjects with metabolic syndrome. Carbohydrate metabolism was estimated by oral glucose tolerance test with 75g of glucose. Of the subjects investigated, 40 were with normal glycaemic tolerance, 40 - with impaired fasting glycaemia, 28 - with impaired glucose tolerance and 45 - with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2. The results were compared to those in a control group of 20 subjects without findings indicating metabolic syndrome. The serum levels of resistin and visfatin were measured with an enzyme immunoassay method (ELISA, BioVendor Laboratory Medicine, Inc., Czech Republic). There were significant differences in body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, plasma level of blood glucose and serum level of triglycerides between the examined subjects with metabolic syndrome, as compared with the control group. The amount of serum resistin in subjects with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 was significantly higher, as compared to the controls. Subjects with metabolic syndrome and pathological glucose tolerance-impaired fasting glycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 were found with a significantly higher serum level of visfatin, as compared to normal glucose tolerance and to the controls. Subjects with metabolic syndrome and pathological glucose tolerance-impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 exhibited significantly changes in serum levels of adipokines-resistin and visfatin.

inhomogeneity. In this direction, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) [ 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 ] of broiler chicken muscle tissue paste and fat tissue is conducted by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 ] and their impedance profiles are thoroughly studied. EIS of broiler chicken muscle tissue paste, chicken tissue blocks and chicken fat tissue is conducted using a constant current signal with a wide frequency range using impedance analyzers. Results show that the broiler chicken muscle tissue is less resistive

implicated in myocyte energetic substrate preference, such as fat tissue (FAT)/CD36 [ 13 , 14 ], lipoprotein lipase, PDK4 or CPT1 [ 2 , 4 , 6 , 14 ]. The PPARβ/δ also promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis and changes in fiber type composition from glycolytic to slow/fast oxidative fibers [ 11 , 13 , 15 , 16 ]. Moreover, mice fed with a high fat diet and treated with PPAR agonist showed decreased progress of obesity as well as upgraded glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity [ 2 , 17 ]. Nutritional status and physical activity are well-known causative


Background: The complex study of adipose tissue in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is of importance for the clinical course and prognosis of the disease.

Aim: To study the distribution of adipose tissue in Bulgarian females with T2DM.

Patients and methods: The study included 92 women with T2DM (age range 40-60 years). The control group consisted of 40 age-matched women. Measurement parameters: height, weight, 9 skinfolds (sf) – sfTriceps, sfBiceps brachii, sfForearm, sfSubscapular, sfXrib, sfAbdomen, sfSuprailiaca, sfThigh, and sfCalf; bioelectrical impedance analysis - % body fat tissue and visceral fat tissue. Calculated indexes: body mass index (BMI), the ratio sfTrunk to sfLimbs, the ratio skin folds upper half of body/skin folds lower half of body, fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass.

Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the means of sfTriceps, sfXrib, sfThigh, sfCalf, % body fat tissue, visceral fat tissue, and fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass between the diabetic and healthy women. The body composition of diabetic females aged 40-60 years contained a larger adipose component than controls. Visceral adipose tissue which determines the body composition is a reliable indicator of the health risks in diabetic women.

Conclusion: The pattern of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in diabetic females aged 40-60 yrs was primarily in the upper torso region and less so in the limbs. In the controls adipose tissue is accumulated primarily in the limbs and in the lower part of the body.


Background: Fiducial markers are objects placed in the field of view of an imaging system for use as a point of reference or a measure. There is no information regarding suitable markers for joint models.

Objectives: We compared the fiducial markers commonly used in X-ray, CT, and MRI imaging modalities.

Methods: The markers tested were plastic balls, ceramic balls, passive reflective balls, liquid-filled balls, and steel balls. The balls were scanned using X-ray, CT, and MRI systems. The scanned X-ray images were reviewed if it the markers are able to be expressed. The tomographic images of CT and MRI were converted into 3D ball models and then the reconstructed shapes and dimensions of the balls were examined. The dimensional accuracy of expression and reconstruction was calculated in terms of the mean and the standard deviation.

Results: There was no marker that can be expressed in all the imaging modalities. Alternatively, we propose a synthetic marker that is composed of a hard sphere and a fat tissue wrapping. The hard ball is for X-ray and CT imaging, while the fat tissue is for MRI imaging.

Conclusion: A synthetic marker composed of a hard sphere and a fat tissue wrapping can a multimodal fiducial marker.


Study aim: Low back pain is accompanied by deconditioning of trunk muscles due to pain limiting patients’ physical activity, but so far it has not been explained whether the changes in the structure of muscles are the cause of disc disease or its result. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of segmental paraspinal muscle hypotrophy in patients with chronic low back pain and sciatica. Material and methods: The study involved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 40 patients: 20 women and 20 men aged from 30 to 47, mean 39.51 ± 3.73 years, with single level disc extrusion at L4-L5. The entire cross-sectional area of the par­aspinal muscles, the adipose tissue area in the paraspinal muscles and the extensor muscle tissue area at the level of L4-L5 were measured and compared with the healthy L3-L4 level. T2-weighted axial slices were used to facilitate distinguishing between the muscle and the fat tissue. Results: Fat tissue ingrowth and paravertebral muscle tissue hypotrophy at the disc extrusion level were highly statistically significant (p < 0.001) compared to the healthy level. Conclusions: 1. Ingrowth of the adipose tissue into the muscle tissue occurs only at the level of disc extrusion. 2. It seems rea­sonable to introduce strengthening exercises after the resolution of pain in order to rebuild the muscles of the spine.


Objectives: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and obesity are among the proven causes of vascular dysfunction. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was developed as a method to assess arterial stiffness. The aim of the study was to establish the influence of weight loss on arterial stiffness parameters. Material and Methods: 135 subjects completed a 6 months standardized life style intervention study. Average initial weight was 96.63kg with a BMI of 34.34kg/m2. CAVI and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) were measured and body composition was assessed. Some biochemical markers were also determined. Results: The average weight decreased to 84.61kg, with fat mass loss of 9.6 kg. Mean CAVI decreased from 7.92±1.28 to 7.21±1.08. The decrease in CAVI correlates with the total weight and fat loss rather than the speed of weight loss. Conclusions: Our results show that weight loss can influence arterial stiffness, mainly by decreasing fat tissue mass.


Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. It is characterized by the formation of a plaque in the walls of middle and large arteries leading to macrovascular complications. Several risk factors are included, with diabetes being one of the most important for the onset and development of atherosclerosis. Due to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes in the world, the incidence of diabetic complications (microvascular and macrovascular) is increasing. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a important role in atherosclerotic processes. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors, has a great presence in fat tissue, macrophages, and regulates gene expression and most of the processes that lead to the onset and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the basic patho-physiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, we discuss the impact of PPARγ polymorphisms, and the epigenetic mechanisms affecting the onset of atherosclerosis, i.e, DNA methylation and demethylation, histone acetylation and deacetylation, and RNA-based mechanisms. Moreover, we add therapeutic possibilities for acting on epigenetic mechanisms in order to prevent the onset and progression of atherosclerosis.


The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive substances use as well as the characteristics of body image, self-image, narcissism and stress coping strategies in the group of male professional bodybuilders.

Material and method. The study comprised a group 30 male bodybuilders practising bodybuilding professionally for over 7 years and 30 men who did not practise any sport.

The following research methods were used in the study: Socio-demographic Questionnaire and Eating Disorders and Self-image Survey Questionnaire in Men designed by Pawłowska and Staniewicz, Coping with Stress Questionnaire by Janke, Erdmann, Boucsein, Narcissism Questionnaire by Deneke, Hilgenstock, Müller, Adjective Check List by Gough and Heilbrun in the authorised translation by Płużek.

Results. As compared to the control group, bodybuilders significantly more often use psychoactive agents and have a more negative body image and self-image and show intensified narcissism.

Conclusions: In comparison to the control group:

  1. Significantly more bodybuilders use psychoactive agents: marijuana, amphetamine and ephedrine.
  2. Bodybuilders are characterised by a significantly more negative body image related to the impression of having excessive fat tissue and not sufficient muscle tissue and intensified pursuing to obtain social acceptance.
  3. Bodybuilders are characterised by a significantly more intensified need for dominance, aggression, competitiveness, breaking social rules, being rebellious, impulsive and confrontational.
  4. Bodybuilders are characterised by significantly more intensified narcissistic traits.
  5. Bodybuilders, while in a stressful situation, express compensatory conviction of having better than other people skills to cope with difficulties.


Previous data strongly indicated that resistin, an adipocyte-derived signalling peptide, plays an important role in metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine changes in synthesis and concentration of resistin in white adipose tissue in response to hyperglycemia in piglets. In order to develop hyperglycemia, piglets (10-week-old, Polish Landrace fatteners, female) received intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 150 mg streptozotocin (HI, n=6) or 60 mg synthetic glucocorticoid (HII, n=6). An injection of NaCl physiological saline was used as a control (n=6). Plasma resistin level was significantly higher in HII group compared with the control, while no difference was observed in HI. In epicardial adipose tissue (EAT ) the resistin mRNA level significantly increased whereas the opposite effect was observed for omental fat tissue (OAT ) in both experimental groups. Additionally, the resistin concentration did not change in EAT ; however, it was decreased in omental adipose tissue in response to hyperglycemia. The results obtained indicate that activity of resistin strongly depends on glycemic status as well as adipose tissue localization.