(Models of agriculture and the spatial diversification of farmingsystems in Poland). Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań.
Meert H., van Huylenbroeck G., Vernimmen T., Bourgeois M. & van Hecke E., 2005. Farm household survival strategies and diversification on marginal farms. Journal of Rural Studies 21: 81-97.
Walford N., 2003. A past and future for diversification on farms? Some evidence from large-scale commercial farms in south-east England. Geografiska Annaler B 85: 51-62.
Zegar J., 2008
Vija Strazdiṇa, Indra Beinaroviča, Linda Legzdiņa and Arta Kronberga
Chateil, C., Goldringer, I., Tarallo, L., Kerbiriou, C., Ponge, J-F, Salmon, S., Gachet, S., Porcher, E. (2010). Crop genetic diversity benefits farmland biodiversity in cultivated fields. In: Breeding for Resilience: A Strategy for Organic and Low-input FarmingSystems? EUCARPIA 2nd Conference of the ‘Organic and Low-Input Agriculture’ Section 1-3, December 2010, Paris, France (pp. 39-42). Paris.
Clarke, S., Haigh, Z., Wolfe, M., Jones, H., Hinchsliffe, K. (2007). Varieties, mixtures and populations in
Acharee S. (1999): Socio-Economic Implications of Water Resource Management in Northern Thailand. Ph.D. Thesis Vol. 33, FarmingSystems and Resource Economics in the Tropics, University of Hohenheim, Germany. www.unihohenheim <http://www.unihohenheim>.de
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Danica Fazekašová, Martin Boltižiar, Lenka Bobuľská, Dana Kotorová, Ján Hecl and Zdena Krnáčová
Fazekašova D., Boltižiar M., Bobuľska L., Kotorova D., Hecl J., Krnačova Z.: Development of soil parameters and changing landscape structure in conditions of cold mountain climate (case study Liptovska Teplička). Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 197-210, 2013.
Soil physical, chemical and biological properties and the content of heavy metals were investigated between 1997 and 2010 and changing landscape structure was evaluated for years 1948-2010 under production conditions in the investigated area Liptovska Teplička (48° 57´ N; 20° 05´ E), situated in the marginal region of north-eastern Slovakia. Research showed that soil physical properties get adjusted after a long-term application of ecological farming system and the measured values were stabilised. High doses of organic fertilizers had positive effect on soil fertility, and thus indirectly on maintaining soil pH, available nutrients content and accumulation of humus in soil. The values of soil enzymes activities changed minimally during the research period. At the same time, it was proven that increasing the content of soil organic matter promotes natural protection of soil enzymes. This study underscores the importance of long-term, quantitative soil monitoring in determining the changes in agricultural land and ecosystem processes over time. Statistically significant effect of experimental year on all observed soil parameters was confirmed by analysis of variance. Effect of experimental locality, with the exception of pH/CaCl2, Cox and Nanorg, on other soil parameters was also statistically significant. This area represents a specific mountain grassland-arable landscape with conservation of traditional agriculture. The results of this paper also analyse landscape structure changes by using the historical maps and aerial photographs of the past 160 years.
Ingo Zasada, Wolfgang Loibl, Mario Köstl and Annette Piorr
Peri-urban agriculture in metropolitan regions is exposed to severe urbanisation pressures related to land and labour availability, thus limiting farming activities. Nevertheless, peri-urban agriculture reveals specific characteristics that contribute to the local food supply and the management of a multifunctional countryside near towns. This paper seeks to investigate agricultural land-use and farming-system characteristics in peri-urban areas within Rural-Urban Regions (RUR) across the EU27. The RUR model, which includes an allocation of urban, peri-urban and rural areas, is developed and applied in spatial and statistical analyses to identify relationships between urbanisation and agriculture. The results indicate that metropolitan agriculture compensates shrinking land bases by increasing the intensity of the labour and turnover generated, and is furthermore specialised at developing horticultural produce that is oriented towards urban consumer markets.
Črtomir Rozman, Karmen Pažek, Jernej Prišenk, Andrej Škraba and Miroljub Kljajić
This paper presents the system dynamics model of organic farming development in order to support decision making. The model seeks answers to strategic questions related to the level of organically utilized area, levels of production and crop selection in a long-term dynamic context. The model will be used for simulation of different policy scenarios for organic farming and their impact on economic and environmental parameters of organic production at an aggregate level. Using the model, several policy scenarios were performed.
Črtomir Rozman, Andrej Škraba, Karmen Pažek and Davorin Kofjač
Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the principles of the development of parallel system-dynamics and agent-based models of organic farming for the case of Slovenia. The advantage of agent-based modeling is demonstrated by including geospatial information as an agent attribute. The models were compared by the validation, confirming the appropriate level of similarity.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Both system-dynamics and agent-based modeling approaches were applied. Statistical methods were used in the validation.
Results: The results of the validation confirm the appropriateness of the proposed agent-based model. Introducing additional attributes into the agent-based model provides an important advantage over the system-dynamics model, which serves as the paradigmatic example.
Conclusion: A thorough validation and comparison of the results of the system-dynamics and agent-based models indicates the proper approach to combining the methodologies. This approach is promising, because it enables the modeling of the entire agricultural sector, taking each particular farm into account.
at the Margins: Abandonment or Redeployment of Agricultural Land in Europe. London/The Hague: Institute for European Environmental Policy Agricultural Economics Research Institute.
Baldock, D. (1998). Indicators for high nature value farmingsystems in Europe. In: F. Brouwer & R. Crabtree (Eds.), Environmental indicators and agricultural policy (pp. 121-136). Wallingford: CAB International.
Ball, D., Dales, J., Sheail, J. & Heal, O. (1982). Vegetation Change in Upland Landscapes. Cambridge, UK: Institute of
Lidia P. Stepanova, Elena V. Yakovleva and A.V. Pisarev
The protection of urban soils and soils located near arterial highways from heavy metal contamination is an environmental issue which has not been resolved in megalopoleis. Purposeful scientific experimental data obtained on the basis of field and laboratory studies is required in order to solve these problems, which has determined the choice of the research objective: to assess the degree of degradation changes in anthropogenically transformed soils in Moscow and Orel regions in terms of total content of heavy metals and their degree of mobility.
Agnieszka A. Barszcz, Ewa Siemianowska, Marcin Sidoruk, Krystyna A. Skibniewska and Józef Szarek
Poland is one of the countries with limited water resources where water saving is recommended e.g. by improving aquaculture methods to use less water. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of water quality and aquaculture technology on bioaccumulation of calcium, magnesium and sodium in muscle tissue of rainbow trout. The study was performed in spring and autumn 2011 in two trout fish farms using different farming technologies: one with flow-through system and the other with water recirculation system. The farming technology had significant influence on magnesium and sodium in waste waters but did not affect the content of the minerals in muscle tissue of rainbow trout