the welfare state’s benefits and risk protection.
Previous research ( Helander, Holley & Uuttana 2016 ) has shown that foreign workers’ temporary stay affects not only their rights to welfare state protection, but also their motivation of acquiring information about benefits and social security they might be entitled to. The temporary migrant picker works with a picker visa and intends to stay in Finland only a short period of time – usually the harvesting season – when there is the highest demand for farmworkers. The short nature of the stay puts earning money
Ljerka Prester, Jelena Macan, Kristina Matković and Marija Vučemilo
Determination of Aspergillus Fumigatus Allergen 1 in Poultry Farms Using the Enzyme Immunoassay
Poultry farms contain high levels of allergenic fungi, and Aspergillus spp. is the most common genus of moulds. Aspergillus fumigatus antigens are responsible for the development of several respiratory diseases including asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Asp f 1, a major allergen of Asperillus fumigatus in 37 indoor dust samples collected from four poultry farms in a rural area of the Zagreb County (Croatia) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More than 62 % of dust samples had detectable Asp f 1 levels (limit of detection 3.6 ng g-1). The overall mean Asp f 1 level was 17.9 ng g-1 [range (3.8 to 72.4) ng g-1]. Satisfactory results were obtained for analytical within-run imprecision (6.7 %), between-run imprecision (10.5 %), and accuracy (91 % to 115 %). Microclimate parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, and velocity) were within the recommended ranges in all poultry farms. This study has shown that Asp f 1 settles on dust at poultry farms and that occupational exposure to this allergen deserves monitoring in livestock buildings.
Adama Toe, Sylvain Ilboudo, Moustapha Ouedraogo and Pierre Guissou
Abhilash PC, Singh N. (2009). Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario. J Hazard Mater 165 : 1-12.
Attia MA. (2006). Risk assessment of occupational exposure to pesticides. Earth Environ Sci 3 : 349-362.
Azmi MA, Naqvi SN, Azmi MA, Aslam M. (2006). Effect of pesticide residues on health and different enzyme levels in the blood of farmworkers from Gadap (rural) Karachi-Pakistan. Chemosphere 64 : 1739-1744.
Clarke EEK, Levy LS
Sciences, 59: 111-123.
Kar, SK, Ghosh, S, Manna, I, Banerjee, S and Dhara P., 2003. An investigation of hand anthropometry of agricultural workers . J. Human Ecology, 14: 57-62.
Yadav, R, Tiwari, VK, and Prasad, N., 1997. Anthropometric data of Indian farmworker - a module analysis . Applied Ergonomics, 21: 69-71.
Gite, LP, and Yadav, BG., 1989. Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design . Applied Ergonomics, 20: 191-196.
Gupta, PK, Sharma, AP and Gupta, ML., 1983. Anthropometric survey of Indian farmworkers . Agricultural
Isreal Ogunlade, Muyiwa Olarinde Oduwaiye, Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho and Sola Emmanuel Komolafe
This study assessed the constraints faced by commercial poultry farmers in waste management practices in Kogi and Kwara States, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from randomly selected 138 and 125 registered commercial poultry farmers from both states, giving a total sample size of 263 for the study. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data for the study. Results of analysis showed that mean age was 46.7 years, farm size was 991 birds and poultry farming experience was 11 years. Also, majority were male (82.0 %), married (88.8 %), had tertiary education (94.0 %). Mean age of farm was 9 years. Poultry dropping was the most (mean = 2.36) generated waste in the study area. The most prevalent waste management methods used by poultry farmers were open dumping around the farm (mean = 2.23), giving wastes free to the public as farmyard manure (mean = 2.16), poultry wastes are dumped in a nearby bush (mean = 2.09), dead birds are buried in a pit near the farm (mean = 2.08), dead birds are thrown into a nearby bush (mean = 2.01) and dead birds are burnt inside a pit or in a heap near the farm (mean = 2.01). The major constraints faced by farmers in waste management practices were lack of awareness on how to use the wastes productively (mean = 4.06), no agricultural land nearby where wastes can be used (mean = 3.69), excessive odour from waste (mean = 3.66), high cost of chemical treatment (mean = 3.56), high transportation cost (mean = 3.24) and high cost of private waste management agencies (mean = 3.01). Results of Multiple Regression Analysis show that poultry wastes used as farm yard manure, burnt and buried in a pit, sun-dried and burnt and given freely to interested farm workers had inverse significant relationship to constraints while dumping of poultry wastes around the farm, nearby bush and to animals such as dogs had positive significant relationship to constraints faced by respondents in waste management. The study concluded that the level of constraints faced by commercial poultry farmers in waste management practices was high (mean = 3.39) in the study area. The study recommends among others the needs for existing poultry farmers association to include programmes that will enlighten members on poultry waste management practices that will not have negative effect upon their birds and the environments.
. Border women: Writing from la Frontera. Minneapolis: University Press of Minnesota. Education of the Heart-Quotes by Cesar Chavez. United FarmWorkers. ufw.org. (accessed 27 February 2015).
Gaztambide-Fernández, Ruben. 2014. Decolonial options and artistic/aestheSic entanglements: An interview with Walter Mignolo. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 3 (1): 196-212.
Gutierrez Y Muhs, Gabriella. 2007. Communal feminisms: Chicanas, Chileans, and cultural exile : Theorizing the space of exile, class, and identity. Lanham, MD
Jovanka Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jordan Minov, Sašo Stoleski, Dragan Mijakoski, Snežana Risteska-Kuc and Snežana Milkovska
Linderholm H. A micromethod for the determination of carbon monoxide in blood. Acta Physiol Scand 1965;64:372-6.
Osawa S, Kariyone K, Ichihara F, Arai K, Takagasa N, Ito H. Development and application of serum cholinesterase activity measurement using benzoylthiocholine iodide. Clin Chim Acta 2005;351:65-72.
Slesinger DP. Health status and needs of migrant farmworkers in the United States: a literature review. J Rural Health 1992;8:227-34.
McCarty C, Chyou PH, Ziegelbauer L, Kempf D, McCarty D
Artur Jabłoński, Dominika Borowska, Sylwia Zębek, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Arkadiusz Dors, Jacek Żmudzki, Agnieszka Nowak and Zygmunt Pejsak
of swine hemoplasmas revealed by real-time PCR using 16S rRNA gene primers. J Vet Med Sci 2012, 74, 1315-1318.
17. Wu J., Yu J., Song C., Sun S., Wang Z.: Porcine eperythrozoonosis in China. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006, 1081, 280-285.
18. Yuan C.L., Liang A.B., Yao C.B., Yang Z.B., Zhu J.G., Cui L., Yu F., Zhu N.Y., Yang X.W., Hua X.G.: Prevalence of Mycoplasma suis (Eperythrozoon suis) infection in swine and swine-farmworkers in Shanghai, China. Am J Vet Res 2009, 70, 890-894.
Nachon G. and Rouillon, J.d. Influence of the age on self-regulation of static grip forces from perceived exertion values. Neurosci lett, 2002; 325:52-56.
Nag A, Nag PK, Desai H. Hand anthropometry of Indian women. Indian J Med Res, 2003; 117: 260-269.
Nicolay, C.W, and A, L. Walker. Grip strength and endurance: influence of anthropometric variation, hand dimention and gender. Int J Ind Ergon, 2005; 35:605-618.
Okunribido OO. A survey of hand anthropometry of female rural farmworkers in
 Andrzejewska, J. & Rye, J. F. (2012). Lost in Transnational Space? Migrant FarmWorkers in Rural Districts. Mobilities 7(2): 247-268. DOI: 10.1080/17450101.2012.654996.
 Bauman, Z. (2007). Liquid Times. Living in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press.
 Bell, D. (2006). Variations on the rural idyll, In: Cloke, P., Marsden, T. & Mooney, P. H., eds., Handbook of Rural Studies (149-160). Sage: London.
 Bell, M. M. (1992). The Fruit of Difference: The Rural