Sławomir Juściński, Wiesław Piekarski and Zdzisław Chomik
Decisions concerning investments in farm tractors is a significant problem of modern agricultural production. Ensuring efficient performance of agrotechnical treatments and a rational level of use of tractors in the aspect of exploitation costs are a derivative of the power equipment level in a farm. The paper presents studies carried out in 31 selected farms, which run production on the total acreage of 937 ha of agricultural land (AL) and exploit 70 tractors. Analysis covered information on: area of farms, number and power of used tractors, investments in technical equipment concerning purchase of farm tractors and a production profile. In the investigated farms at the average per 100 ha of the agricultural land area there was 7.47 tractors, 90% of respondents actively used subsidies available from the EU structural funds. A high energy equipment level was determined in particular in farm with a smaller acreage. Over 87% of farm used more than one tractor and the age of the third each did not exceed six years.
Jarosław Czarnecki, Marek Brennensthul, Włodzimierz Białczyk, Weronika Ptak and Łukasz Gil
The paper presents results of the research on traction properties of two tractor tyres used on two agricultural grounds. The first ground was a stubble and the second one cropland. The investigated tyres had the same structure (diagonal, with a traditional tyre tread but different external dimensions. The research was carried out in field conditions with the use of a stand aggregated with a farm tractor. Analysis covered traction efficiency, slide, towing power and power lost on the rolling resistance and wheel slide. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that on a ground with lower compaction, the values of power losses were higher and traction efficiency was lower. Moreover, it was proved that the value of the power lost for rolling resistance had a decisive impact on the values of traction efficiency
Wojciech Gołębiowski, Grzegorz Zając and Artur Wolak
The paper presents results of research on selected physico-chemical parameters of engine oils from farm tractors based on the date of their change assumed by the user. 17 samples of used engine oil from farm tractors of various producers and with a varied exploitation course were analysed. Oils for research were collected during oil change, registering the service life of oil each time. They were obtained from service points that repair farm tractors in the region of Lublin Province. The studies were to verify whether a decision concerning oil change taken by tractor users after specific time of operation of an engine was good. Number of exceedings of the threshold values of parameters of engine oil which are responsible for correct lubrication were the basis for evaluation
Andrzej Kuranc, Tomasz Słowik, Paweł Krzaczek and Grzegorz Maj
The article presents calculations of unit fumes emission made based on the measurements of the fumes composition during a load test. The test was carried out with the use of a movable dynamometric stand adjusted for testing agricultural tractors by power take-off shaft. Calculations of unit emission were made based on the assumed flow of air sucked by an engine and the measured composition of fumes emitted during the load test. Results of tests and analyses supply information on the mass of particle matter and the selected gas elements emitted by an engine working under the load which was related to simultaneous determination of the exploitation characteristic of an engine. The presented methodology may be helpful at evaluation of impact of farm tractors on the environment within the hazardous fume components emitted by them.
The paper presents analysis of efficiency of the logging unit comprising Belarus 820 farm tractor and PD80 logging trailer equipped with Ryś-1 crane. Analysis was made based on the working day timing. The unit logged 1- meter long tree pieces (hornbeam, oak, birch) from the area where material for logging was distributed irregularly on the entire felling site. Unfavourable atmospheric conditions were reported during the working day (a thick layer of snow, low temperature, not frozen soil) which could have influenced the unit operation performance. Despite that the performance of the logging unit was comparable to similar logging units described in the literature. Determined coefficient of use of the operating time of the machine K02 was 0.93, coefficient of use of the shift working time K04 − 0.9, coefficient of use of the shift exploitation time K07 − 0.8. Hourly performance in the shift exploitation time was 4.98 m3·h−1, efficiency in the shift working time W02 − 4.80 m3·h−1 and performance in the general shift time W07 − 4.30 m3·h−1.
skidding at thinnings in mountains]. Sylwan, 12: 21-34.
Sosnowski J. 2003. Zasady proekologicznej zrywki drewna w warunkach gospodarki leśnej w górach [Principles of proecological extraction of timber in the mountains]. Sylwan, 5: 58-64.
Translated by: Katarzyna Mikułowska Sowa J., Kulak D. 2008a. Charakterystyka uszkodzeń powierzchniowych warstw gleby podczas zrywki drewna ciągnikami rolniczymi w trzebieżowych drzewostanach sosnowych [Characteristics of topsoil layers damage during wood skidding with farmtractors in thinning pinestands
Aleksander Marek, Piotr Kardasz, Mikolaj Karpinski and Volodymyr Pohrebennyk
This paper presents the logistic system of fuel life cycle, covering diesel oil and the mixture of rapeseed oil and butanol (2:3 ratio), using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. This method is a technique in the field of management processes with a view to assessing the potential environmental hazards. Our intention was to compare the energy consumption needed to produce each of the test fuels and emissions of selected substances generated during ithe production process. The study involved 10,000 liters of diesel and the same amount of rapeseed oil and butanol mixture (2:3 ratio). On the basis of measurements the following results were obtained. To produce a functional unit of diesel oil (i.e. 10,000 liters) it is necessary to extract 58.8 m3 of crude oil. The entire life cycle covering the consumption of 10,000 liters of diesel consumes 475.668 GJ of energy and causes the emission to air of the following substances: 235.376 kg of COx, 944.921 kg of NOx, 83.287 kg of SOx. In the ease of a functional unit, to produce a mixture of rapeseed oil and butanol (2:3 ratio) 10,000 kg of rapeseed and 20,350 kg of straw should be used. The entire life cycle of 10,000 liters of a mixture of rapeseed oil and butyl alcohol (2:3 ratio) absorbs 370.616 GJ of energy, while emitting the following air pollutants: 105.14832 kg of COx, 920.03124 kg of NOx, 0.162 kg of SOx. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion that it is oil refining which is the most energy-intensive and polluting process in the life cycle of diesel. The process consumes 41.4 GJ of energy, and causes a significant emission of sulfur oxides (50 kg). In the production of fuel that is a mixture of rapeseed oil and butyl alcohol (2:3 ratio), rape production is the most energy-intensive manufacturing process is (absorbs 53.856 GJ of energy). This is due to the long operation time of the farm tractor and combine harvester. The operation of these machines leads also to the emission of a significant amount of pollution in the form of COx (2.664 kg) and NOx (23.31 kg).
Volodymyr Bulgakov, Valerii Adamchuk, Volodymyr Nadykto, Volodymyr Kyurchev and Ladislav Nozdrovický
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