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Fake News as a Tool of Populism in Turkey: The Pastor Andrew Brunson Case

References Adee, S. (2016). How can Facebook and its users burst the ‘filter bubble’? from Newscientist: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2113246-how-can-facebook-and-its-users-burst-the-filter-bubble/ Accessed on 11.11.2018. Allcott, H. and Gentzkow, M. (2017), “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election”, Journal of Economic Perspective, Volume 31, Number: Spring 2017, Pages 211–236. Amnesty International Report 2014/15, “The state of the World’s Human Rights” from http://haqqi.info/check_1.php?t=research_paper&f=HRIDGR0368

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Legislative Measures Adopted at the International Level Against Fake News

References [1] Bârgăoanu Alina, #FAKENEWS. Noua cursă a înarmării , București, Evrika, 2018. [2] European Commission, A multi-dimensional approach to disinformation, Report of the independent High level Group on fake news and online disinformation , Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2018, p. 10. [3] Idem. [4] Parliament of Malaysia, Anti-Fake News Bill , Malaysia, 2018, p. 4, available at: http://www.cljlaw.com/files/bills/pdf/2018/MY_FS_BIL_2018_06.pdf accessed on 04 February 2019. [5] Gulizar Haciyakupoglu

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Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Elements in Detecting (Hungarian) Fake News

: Gondolat Kiadó. Casti, J. L. (1990). Verlust der Wahrheit. Streitfragen der Naturwissenschaften . Munich: Droemer/Knaur. Coughlan, S. (2017). Schools Should Teach Pupils How to Spot ‘Fake News’. BBC , 18 March 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/education-39272841 [06. 04. 2017]. Criss, D. (2017). Where Fake News Goes to Die. How Snopes Battles Bigfoot Rumors, Facebook Fibs and Other Made-Up News. CNN , 10 March 2017 [06. 04. 2017]. Falyuna, N. (2016). Az arcvédő hazugság: A szívességkérés elutasításában megjelenő hazugság vizsgálata. Jelentés és

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Fake News as a Threat to National Security

References [1] THE COLLINS WORD OF THE YEAR 2017 IS... FAKE NEWS: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/woty (last retrieved on 13 January 2018). [2] Fake news: What exactly is it - and how can you spot it? - James Titcomb and James Carson: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/0/fake-news-exactly-has-really-hadinfluence/ (last retrieved on 12 March 2018). [3] Фалшивите новини като бизнес модел и заплаха (Fake news as a business model and a threat): http://cio.bg/9102_falshivite

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Influence of the educational level on the spreading of Fake News regarding the energy field in the online environment

capital . Retrieved from: http://www.capital.ro/iancu-romania-are-o-performanta-negativa-fara-precedent-la-nive.html , on 17.04.2018. Figueira, A., Oliveira, L., 2017. The current state of Fake News: Challenges and Opportuniteis, Procedia Computer Science , 121, pp. 817-825. Friggeri, A., Adamic, L. A., Eckles, D., Cheng, J., (2014). Rumor Cascades. In Proceedings of the Eighth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media . Jang, M., Geng T., Queenie Li J.Y., Xia, R., Huang, C.T., Kim, H., Tang, J., 2018. A computational approach for

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Phenomenon of Fake News

REFERENCES: HARARI Y. N., (2018) 21 Lessons for the 21st Century, Penguin Books, London GRZESIAK M., (2017) Negative implication of post-truth and fake news toward personal brand development, Marketing I Rynek 12/2017, Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu w Dąbrowie Górniczej. BOESE A. , (2018), The Museum of hoaxes, Amber, Warsaw. BARCLAY D. A. (2018), Fake news, propaganda, and plain old lies: how to find trustworthy information in the digital age, Lanham, Maryland, The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. JOURNELL W. (2019), Unpacking

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How Truthiness, Fake News and Post-Fact Endanger Brands and What to Do About It

Abstract

Brands can interact both directly and indirectly with fake news. In some instances, brands are the victims of fake news and, other times, the purveyors. Brands can either finance fake news or be the targets of it. Indirectly, they can be linked via image transfer, where either fake news contaminates brands, or brands validate fake news.

To control the risk of negative image transfer, the authors propose technical actions to address false news and systemic steps to rethink the management of brands in order to inoculate against various forms of “fakery” and to reestablish stakeholder trust. Systemic solutions involve a rethinking of brands and branding. Too often, brands have become uncoupled from the reality of the offerings they adorn. But brands are not ends in themselves, they are the result of outstanding offerings. They can act as interpretive frames, but they don’t unilaterally create reality, as many seem to believe. Brands should not be seen and managed as objects but as perceptual processes.

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The Necessity of Satire in Media Literacy: Stephen Colbert’s Use of Sophistic and Socratic Irony

.1080/07393180701521072. 4. Borden, Sandra L., and Chad Tew. “The Role of Journalist and the Performance of Journalism: Ethical Lessons from ‘FakeNews (Seriously).” Journal of Mass Media Ethics Vol. 22, No. 4 (2007): 300–314. 5. Chaddock, Gail Russell. “Bush Tax Cuts: Democrats Punt Until After Midterm Elections.” Christian Science Monitor (Sep. 24, 2010). 6. Colbert Report , The . “Exclusive, Better Know a District, District of Columbia, Eleanor Holmes Norton.” Comedy Central. July 27, 2006. 7. Consigny, Scott. Gorgias: Sophist and Artist . Columbia: University

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Headlines as Fake News: Discursive Deception in Serbia’s Daily Informer (2012–2018)

Abstract

Since the end of the wars of Yugoslav secession, and since Kosovo’s declaration of independence, the Balkans—Serbia included—have taken a back seat in academic research. Even though media freedoms have been severely stifled following the coming to power of Aleksandar Vučić in 2012, today’s Serbian media are still failing to become a topic for scholarly research. In this article, we scrutinize the daily Informer, the unofficial daily of Serbia’s strongman, president Vučić, via a discourse analysis of its headlines. As shall be shown, the Informer supports the reign of Aleksandar Vučić by framing him as a hero and martyr, fighting for the ‘people’, in a highly populist fashion, discursively painting the opposition in a highly negative light, as well as promoting warmongering and the idea that Serbia is surrounded by enemies. This is achieved via discursive deception, bases on assertive rhetoric, filled with exaggerations.

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Swedish teenagers’ difficulties and abilities to determine digital news credibility

and Social Psychology , 82: 189–192 10.1037/0022-3514.82.2.189 Kruger J. Dunning D. 2002 Unskilled and unaware – but why? A reply to Krueger and Mueller Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82 189 192 Lazer, D. M., Baum, M. A., Benkler, Y., Berinsky, A. J., Greenhill, K. M., Menczer, F., . . . Rothschild, D. (2018). The science of fake news. Science , 359(6380): 1094–1096. 10.1126/science.aao2998 29590025 Lazer D. M. Baum M. A. Benkler Y. Berinsky A. J. Greenhill K. M. Menczer F. Rothschild D. 2018 The science

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