References Ahmad, A.H.M. & Bhat, G.M., 2006. Petrofacies, provenance and diagenesis of the Dhosa Sandstone Member (Chari Formation) at Ler, Kachchh sub–basin, western India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 27, 857–872. Ahmad, A.H.M., Khan, F. & Wasim, S.M., 2013. Faciesanalysis and depositional environment of the Jurassic, Jumara Dome sediments, Kachchh, western India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 82, 181–189. Ahmad, F., Quasim, M.A., Ghaznavi, A.A., Khan, Z. & Ahmad, A.H.M., 2017. Depositional Environment as revealed from lithofacies and grain
References Aubrecht R., Méres Š., Sýkora M. & Mikuš T. 2009: Provenance of the detrital garnets and spinels from the Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Geol. Carpath. 60, 463–483. Backert N., Ford M. & Malartre F. 2010: Architecture and sedimentology of the Kerinitis Gilbert-type fan delta, Corinth Rift, Greece. Sedimentology 57, 2, 543–586. Beaumont C. 1981: Foreland basins. Geoph. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 55, 291–329. Benvenuti M. 2003: Faciesanalysis and tectonic significance of
The present article focuses predominantly on sandy deposits that occur within the Middle Miocene lignite seam at the Tomisławice opencast mine, owned by the Konin Lignite Mine. As a result of mining activity, these siliciclastics were available for direct observation in 2015–2016. They are situated between two lignite benches over a distance of ~500 m in the lower part and ~200 m in the higher part of the exploitation levels. The maximum thickness of these sandy sediments, of a lenticular structure in a S–N cross section, is up to 1.8 m. With the exception of a thin lignite intercalation, these siliciclastics comprise mainly by fine-grained and well-sorted sands, and only their basal and top layers are enriched with silt particles and organic matter. Based on a detailed analysis of the sediments studied (i.e., their architecture and textural-structural features), I present a discussion of their genesis and then propose a model of their formation. These siliciclastics most likely formed during at least two flood events in the overbank area of a Middle Miocene meandering or anastomosing river. Following breaching of the natural river levee, the sandy particles (derived mainly from the main river channel and levees) were deposited on the mire (backswamp) surface in the form of crevasse splays. After each flooding event, vegetation developed on the top of these siliciclastics; hence, two crevasse-splay bodies (here referred to as the older and younger) came into existence. As a result, the first Mid-Polish lignite seam at the Tomisławice opencast mine is currently divided in two by relatively thick siliciclastics, which prevents a significant portion of this seam from being used for industrial purposes.
The Orava Basin is an intramontane depression filled with presumably fine-grained sediments deposited in river, floodplain, swamp and lake settings. The basin infilling constitutes a crucial record of the neoalpine evolution of the Inner/Outer Carpathian boundary area since the Neogene, when the Jurassic-Paleogene basement became consolidated, uplifted and eroded. The combination of sedimentological and structural studies with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements provided an effective tool for recognition of terrestrial environments and deformations of the basin infilling. The lithofacies-oriented sampling and statistical approach to the large dataset of AMS specimens were utilized to define 12 AMS facies based on anisotropy degree (P) and shape (T). The AMS facies allowed a distinction of sedimentary facies ambiguous for classical methods, especially floodplain and lacustrine sediments, as well as revealing their various vulnerabilities to tectonic modification of AMS. A spatial analysis of facies showed that tuffites along with lacustrine and swamp deposits were generally restricted to marginal and southern parts of the basin. Significant deformations were noticed at basin margins and within two intrabasinal tectonic zones, which indicated the tectonic activity of the Pieniny Klippen Belt after the Middle Miocene. The large southern area of the basin recorded consistent N-NE trending compression during basin inversion. This regional tectonic rearrangement resulted in a partial removal of the southernmost basin deposits and shaped the basin’s present-day extent.
The Upper Triassic-Lower Cretaceous successions of the Transdanubian part of the Mecsek and Villány- Bihor Zones of the Tisza Unit have been studied from the lithological, lithostratigraphical, sedimentological, microfossil and microfacies points of view in order to correlate and interpret the significant differences between them and to draw a conclusion about their geological and paleogeographical history. After an overview of the paleogeographical reconstructions of the broader area, the succession of the Mecsek and Villány-Bihor Zones and the debated Máriakéménd-Bár Range are introduced. Until the end of the Middle Triassic the study area acted as an entity. The first fundamental difference between the two zones can be recognized in the Late Triassic when marine carbonates were replaced by thick fluvial siliciclastics in the Mecsek Zone, while it is represented only by small, local lenses with a few and thin dolostone intercalations in the Villány Zone. The Mecsek Zone is bordered southward by one of the large listric faults to the north of which very thick siliciclastics developed in the Early to Middle Jurassic, whereas it is highly lacunose in the larger western part of the Villány-Bihor Zone. The break at the base is subaerial, higher in the succession it is shallow submarine. The sediment is silty, occasionally sandy crinoidal limestone of late Early Jurassic or even Middle Jurassic in age. The Upper Jurassic in the Mecsek Zone is composed of deep-water cherty limestone while in the Villány Zone it became a thick, shallowing pelagic limestone with reworked patch reef fragments. It is clear evidence that the Mecsek Zone had a thinned continental crust thanks to the nearby rift zone while in the Villány Zone the crust remained thick. The actualized version of the Plašienka’s paleogeographical model (Plašienka 2000) is introduced
Terre, Sedimentation detritique, Friourg, 355–419. Mutti E. & Ricci Lucchi F. 1972: The turbidites of the northern Apennines: introduction to faciesanalysis. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital. 11,161–199 (in Italian). Mutti E. & Ricci Lucchi F. 1975: Turbidite facies and facies associations. In: Mutti E., Parea G.C., Ricci Lucchi F., Sagri M., Zanzucchi G., Ghibaudo G. & Iaccarino S. (Eds.): Examples of turbidite facies associations from selected formations of the Northern Apennines. Field Trip A11. IX Int. Sedimentol. Congr., Nice , France, 21–36. Nemec W. 2009: What is a
The present study focuses on the upper Neogene deposits, called the “Poznań Clays”, that cover more than 75,000 km2 of Poland. They are situated between the first mid- Polish lignite seam and the glaciogenic deposits of the Pleistocene age. Lithostratigraphically, the “Poznań Clays” belong to the uppermost portion of the lignite-bearing Grey Clays Member and the whole Wielkopolska Member (Poznań Formation). The examined fine-grained sediments include mud-rich floodplain deposits with palaeosol remnants and large sandy-muddy or muddy palaeochannel bodies. Therefore, taking into account facies analysis, cross-sectional geometry, and the planform of the palaeochannels, it can be stated that the “Poznań Clays” formed in the environment of a late Neogene anastomosing river.
The different types of calcareous exotic clasts (fragments of pre-existing rocks), embedded in the Paleocene siliciclastic deposits of the Istebna Formation from the Beskid Mały Mountains (Silesian Unit, Western Outer Carpathians), were studied and differentiated through microfacies-biostratigraphical analysis. Calcareous exotics of the Oxfordian- Kimmeridgian age prevail, representing a type of sedimentation comparable to that one documented for the northern Tethyan margin. The Tithonian exotic clasts (Štramberk-type limestones), which are much less common, were formed on a carbonate platform and related slope. The sedimentary paleotransport directions indicate the Silesian Ridge as a main source area for all exotics, which were emplaced in the depositional setting of the flysch deposits. The exotics constitute a relatively rare local component of some debrites. Proceedings of the sedimentological facies analysis indicate that these mass transport deposits were accumulated en-masse by debris flows in a deep-water depositional system in the form of a slope apron. Exotics prove that clasts of the crystalline basement and, less common, fragments of the sedimentary cover, originated from long-lasting tectonic activity and intense uplift of the source area. Mass transport processes and mass accumulation of significant amounts of the coarse-grained detrital material in the south facial zone of the Silesian Basin during the Early Paleogene was due to reactivation of the Silesian Ridge and its increased denudation. Relative regression and erosion of the emerged older flysch deposits were also forced by this uplift. These processes were connected with the renewed diastrophic activity in the Alpine Tethys.
Shallow-seated controls on the evolution of the Upper Pliocene Kopasz-hegy nested monogenetic volcanic chain in the Western Pannonian Basin (Hungary)
Monogenetic, nested volcanic complexes (e.g. Tihany) are common landforms in the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (BBHVF, Hungary), which was active during the Late Miocene up to the Early Pleistocene. These types of monogenetic volcanoes are usually evolved in a slightly different way than their "simple" counterparts. The Kopasz-hegy Volcanic Complex (KVC) is inferred to be a vent complex, which evolved in a relatively complex way as compared to a classical "sensu stricto" monogenetic volcano. The KVC is located in the central part of the BBHVF and is one of the youngest (2.8-2.5 Ma) volcanic erosion remnants of the field. In this study, we carried out volcanic facies analysis of the eruptive products of the KVC in order to determine the possible role of changing magma fragmentation styles and/or vent migration responsible for the formation of this volcano. The evolution of the KVC started with interaction of water-saturated Late Miocene (Pannonian) mud, sand, sandstone with rising basaltic magma triggering phreatomagmatic explosive maar-diatreme forming eruptions. These explosive eruptions in the northern part of the volcanic complex took place in a N-S aligned paleovalley. As groundwater supply was depleted during volcanic activity the eruption style became dominated by more magmatic explosive-fragmentation leading to the formation of a mostly spatter-dominated scoria cone that is capping the basal maar-diatreme deposits. Subsequent vent migration along a few hundred meters long fissure still within the paleovalley caused the opening of the younger phreatomagmatic southern vent adjacent to the already established northern maar. This paper describes how change in eruption styles together with lateral migration of the volcanism forms an amalgamated vent complex.
eight chapters: 1 – The Scope of Modern Stratig-
raphy; 2 – The Stratigraphic-Sedimentologic Data
Base; 3 – FaciesAnalysis; 4 – Facies Models; 5 – Se-
quence Stratigraphy; 6 – Basin Mapping Methods;
7 – Stratigraphy: The Modern Synthesis; 8 – The Fu-
ture of Time. In the introduction, the history of stra-
tigraphy is discussed; a smooth transition brings us
to techniques employed in current stratigraphical
studies and the author describes these methods in
great detail, showing us how they have changed
during the last 200 years, leading to