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The Dynamics of Extreme Poverty in Developing Countries

Abstract

This paper aims to analyses the trends and dynamics of extreme poverty in developing countries. The study attempts to answer one critical question: has the world achieved its number one Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing extreme poverty by half by 2015? The methodology used in this study mainly involves a descriptive data analysis during the period 1981-2015. The study used the World Bank’s US$1.90 a day line (popularly known as $1 a day line) in 2011 prices to measure the level of absolute poverty. In order to analyze the dynamics of poverty across different regions, the study grouped countries into five regions: i) sub-Saharan Africa; ii) East Asia and the Pacific; iii) South Asia; iv) Europe and Central Asia; and v) Latin America and the Caribbean. The study found that in 1990, there were around 1.9 billion people living below US$1.90 a day (constituting 36.9 percent of the world population) and this number is estimated to have reduced to around 700 million people in 2015, with an estimated global poverty rate of 9.6 percent. The world met the MDG target in 2010, which is five years ahead of schedule. However, extreme poverty is becoming increasingly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA), where its depth and breadth remain a challenge. SSA remains the poorest region, with more than 35 percent of its citizens living on less than US$1.90 a day. Half of the world’s extremely poor people now live in SSA, and it is the only region which has not met its MDG target.

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Experience and Observations on the Choice of Career among Disadvantaged Students in North-Hungary

Abstract

It appears - and this is apparent from school documentation - that every school considers its duty to support career orientation. At the same time, it is obvious that guiding the process of making career choices exists only on the level of references. As we did not question teachers, we have only tiny fragments what is done for the sake of career choices. Such is like: letting students visit an open day; as the part of the head-teacher’s class they help students complete the admission form to high-schools; based on academic records they make the proper type of high schools, there was an elementary school that brought its students to trade gatherings in Budapest, where both on film and on the spot students were introduced to the master-strokes (on the other hand students did not remember these, even though they were present).

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Social Risk Management as a Strategy in the Fight Against Poverty and Social Exclusion

Abstract

Questions surrounding the fight against poverty and social exclusion have become a global priority. Poverty and its causes are perceived as differences in the economic and social development of each individual continent and country. Social risk management was developed by the World Bank as a specific conceptual framework of social protection strategy and includes prevention, mitigation and the management of social risks. The diverging causes of poverty across the European continent assume a different approach in identifying causes and social risk management. An important aspect of the EU’s social policy is to combat unemployment and social exclusion with the support of the European fund to help the extreme poor and other EU funds, e.g. EQUAL. The appropriate implementation of social risk management in each country is a prerequisite for reducing extreme poverty. Social risk management as a global strategy to combat poverty and extreme poverty is a challenge in the field of education which offers a new range of views and is generating more complex professional competencies in education and new possibilities for university graduates in the labor market.

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Satisfying of Needs and Immanent Market Incompetencies

the Global Distribution of Income in 1970-99. Fourth Meeting of the Expert Group on Poverty Statistics, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. DOLEŽALOVÁ, A. (2013). Príbeh chudoby. Mezi spravedlností, milosrdenstvím a statistikou. In. HLAVACKA M. CIBULKA P. AT ALII. Chudinství a chudoba jako sociálne historický fenomén, s.59-81 Praha : Historický ústav AV. ISBN 978-80-7286-225-2. GODINOT, X. (2010). Extreme Poverty and World Governance: For a world governance where decision-making is centred on real participation of people in extreme poverty and

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An evaluation of vegetation health and the socioeconomic dimension of the vulnerability of Jharkhand state of India in climate change scenarios and their likely impact: a geospatial approach

Abstract

Geospatial evaluation of various datasets is extremely important because it gives a better comprehension of the past, present and future and can therefore be significantly utilized in effective decision making strategies. This study examined the relationships, using geospatial tools, between various diversified datasets such as land use/land cover (LULC), long term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based changes, long term forest fire points, poverty percentage, tribal percentage, forest fire hotspots, climate change vulnerability, agricultural vulnerability and future (2030) climate change anomalies (RCP-6) of Jharkhand state, India, for a better understanding and knowledge of its vegetation health, LULC, poverty, tribal population and future climate change impact. The long term NDVI (1982-2006) evaluation revealed negative change trends in seven northwest districts of Jharkhand state, these were: Hazaribag, Ramgarh, Palamu, Lohardaga, Chatra, Garhwa and Latehar. The forests as well as the agriculture of these districts have lost their greenness during this period. The forest fire frequency events were found to be more pronounced in the land use/land cover of “tropical lowland forests, broadleaved, evergreen, <1000 m” category, and were roughly twice the intensity of the “tropical mixed deciduous and dry deciduous forests” category. In the nine districts of Jharkhand it was found that 40 % of the population was living below the poverty line which is around twice the national average. The highest poverty districts, in percentage, were: Garwah (53.93), Palamu (49.24), Latehar (47.99) and Chatra (46.2). The southwest and south of Jharkhand state shows a tribal population density of more than 40%. The climate change vulnerability was found to be highest in the district of Saraikela followed by Pashchim Singhbhum, whereas agricultural vulnerability was found to be highest in the district of Pashchim Singhbhum followed by Saraikela, Garhwa, Simdega, Latehar, Palamu and Lohardaga. The temperature anomalies prediction for the year 2030 shows an increasing trend in temperature with values of 0.8°C to 1°C in the state of Jharkhand. The highest increases were observed in the districts of Pashchim Singhbhum, Simdega and Saraikela. Based on these evaluations we can conclude that a few of the districts of Jharkhand, such as Pashchim Singhbhum, Garhwa, Palamu and Latehar need to be prioritized for development on an urgent basis. The outcomes of this study would certainly guide the policymakers to prepare more robust plans when keeping in mind the future climate change impacts for the prioritization of various districts of Jharkhand which suffer from extreme poverty, diminished livelihood and insignificant agricultural productivity for the betterment of the people of Jharkhand based on their adaptive capacity.

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Inclusive Institutions for Sustainable Economic Development

Economic Issues, 1 (18), 1-16. 11. Ranier, R., Almeida Ramos, R. (2016). Inclusive growth: building up a concept, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG), Working Paper 104. 12. Rodrik, D. (2004). Growth Strategies, Retrieved from: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/rodrik/ 13. World Bank (2013a). Inclusion matters the foundation for shared prosperity. Washington: World bank. 14. World Bank (2013b). The World Bank Group Goals: End Extreme Poverty and Promote Shared Prosperity. Washington: World

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Efficient Resource Allocation and Utilization: The Missing Link in Nigeria’s Quest for Sustainable Development

for Good Governance in Nigeria: A Survey of People’s Perception in Benin City. Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(28), 179-188. Retrieved http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=45F0C163CDFA335EA7F9C56B4636BA83?doi=10.1.1.663.97&rep=rep1&type=pdf Runsewe, O. (2017). Nigeria to Become the Extreme Poverty Capital of the World by 2018. Retrieved from http://venturesafrica.com/nigeria-set-to-become-the-extreme-poverty-capital-by-2018/ Salawu, B. (2007). Towards Solving the Problem of Corruption in Nigeria: The

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A Nutritional Analysis of the Food Basket in BIH: A Linear Programming Approach

-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, Manuscript completed in January 2011, The measurement of extreme poverty in the european union, http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=6462&langId=en (accesed: 13. 03. 2017). Metodologija izrade minimalne potrošačke korpe, Zavod za statistiku Crne Gore https://www.monstat.org/userfiles/file/min%20potrosacka/metodologija%20MPK%2020_04.pdf (accesed: 13. 03. 2017.) Poverty and Living Conditions - report from the Household Budget Survey 2007, BiH Statistical Agency; http://www.bhas.ba/ankete/hbs_07

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Maximising available resources: Equality and human rights proofing Irish fiscal policy

obligation to devote the ‘maximum available resources’ to realizing economic, social, and cultural rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 16 (4), 693–714. Saiz, I. (2013). Resourcing rights: Combatting tax injustice from a human rights perspective. In A. Nolan, R. O’Connell & C. Harvey (Eds), Human rights and public finance. London: Hart. Sepúlveda-Carmona, M. (2014). UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights report 2014. Geneva: UN. Titmuss, R. (1958). Essays on the welfare state. London: George Allen & Unwin. Vail, J. (2010

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The controversial nature of workfare programmes

Szociologiai Szemle, vol. 20, 2010, no. 1, pp. 26-52. CSOBA, J. 2017. A kertkultura es a haztartasgazdasag szerepe a videki szegenyek tarsadalmi integraciojaban - 25 eves a Szocialis Foldprogram. In Ter es Tarsadalom, vol. 31, 2017, no. 3, pp. 85-102. CZIBERE, I. - MOLNAR, E. 2017. Labour market perspectives of young women living in extreme poverty in closed rural space: the case of a Hungarian-Romanian cul-de-sac border village. Ager. In Revista de Estudios sobre Despoblacion y Desarrollo Rural, 2017, no. 23, pp. 7-26. DATTA

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