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Abstract

In recent years, a dynamic development of brewing has been observed. Increasingly, production of malt and beer takes place even in smaller industrial factories, breweries restaurants or at home. Extraction is a process applied in a variety of industries, including food production, as a way of extracting specific ingredients from their mixtures. As a result of this process, not only sugars, proteins, fats, enzymes, vitamins, colorants, fragrances and flavors, but also malt and hop extracts are being isolated. In the process of mashing, in which the malt ingredients are being extracted, many biochemical, physical and chemical changes take place. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of the degree of fragmentation of pilsner type malt on the amount of extract obtained and the pH of the mash. It has been observed that the degree of malt fragmentation has a significant effect on the content of the extract in the mash: the more fragmented malt, the more malt extract in mash produced using the malt. It has also been found that the pH of the mash increases with the average particle size of malt.

Abstract

We describe the development of a SCAR-marker linked to low extractives content of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L [Karst.]) derived from AFLPs. In these analyses 57 different primer enzyme combinations were used in a bulked segregant analysis approach comparing individuals with high and low extractives content. A total of 14 polymorphic AFLP markers were detected between the pools. Five markers were selected for further analyses to verify their linkage to extractives content based on individuals used for pool constitution. One AFLP marker, found to be significant linked to low extractives content was converted into a SCAR marker for further validation. For this marker, a monomorphic band was obtained by using sets of nested primers or restriction site specific primers (RSS) which include the AFLP-restriction recognition site. The separation of the marker from unlinked size homologous marker-alleles was realized by a SSCP-approach. Validation of the marker on different full-sib families confirmed the usability to separate the classes for low and high extractives content of Picea abies.

Abstract

The formation and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) highly depends on the input of organic material and microbial enzymatic activities. Soil extractions with specific nonpolar and polar extractives can be used to identify qualitative changes in SOM. The aim of this paper was to understand the correlations among microbial enzymatic activity and specific organic fractions in acidic spruce forest soil. Klason lignin (KL), acid soluble lignin (ASL), holocellulose (HC), SOM content, and potential enzymatic activity (FDA and phosphatase) was measured and analyzed. We sampled Dystric Cambisol of forest spruce stands (Picea abies) in Tatra National Park (Slovakia). The SOM fractions were determined gravimetrically based on their extractivity in nonpolar (dichloromethane (DME)) and polar (acetone (AE), ethanol (EE), water (WE)) solvents Total extractives content was 0.079% and nonpolar extractives 0.036%. The mean amount of polar extractives tented to increase in the order EE<AE<WE. The total lignin content was determined to be 1.079% and HC 0.774%. FDA negatively correlated with KL (r=-0.873 p<0.05) and DME (r=-0.913 p<0.05). Phosphatase positively correlated with WE (r=0.972 p<0.01) and KL (r=0.957 p<0.01).

Abstract

Colour measurement is one of the methods used to evaluate food quality. Aim of completed research was the evaluation of a fast and non-destructive method which consisted of assessing colour changes. It was used to determine the ripeness of cherries during their harvest. Additionally, the most significant parameter determining fruit ripeness was identified. Colour measurements of the Burlat cherry on the PHL A rootstocks were supposed to provide standards for practical evaluation of fruit ripeness of this species at an orchard. During the research, the measurements concerned the internal quality of the cherry fruit (firmness, extract content) and the force required to tear off the stem, depending on the size of the fruit. The extract appeared to be the most important indicator to be used for the determination of an optimum harvesting period. It was most prominently correlated with the cherry’s colour. Changes in the skin colour were the most reflected by the value of the parameter CIE a*. The coordinates CIE L* and b* are also important for the determination of fruit quality. Burlat cherries achieve their optimum harvesting ripeness if the coordinate a* is within the range 30.0 to 0.0, the coordinate b* within 10.0 to 0.0 and the coordinate L* within 30.0 to 20.0, which corresponds to the extract value of 12-20%.

Abstract

A three-year experiment was set up to assess the effect of three mulch types on the growth and yield of ‘Polka’ autumn fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). The experimental arrangement comprised four combinations of two parallel blocks, one of which was a field crop and the second was a covered crop in the form of a high tunnel with raised beds sides. The crop was grown on raised beds (approximately 30 cm high) covered with a mulch made of: 1) polypropylene non-woven (PP); 2) PP with a photodegradant; 3) polylactide nonwoven (PLA). A crop on a raised bed without any mulch was the control. Biometric, physiological and yield parameters were assessed and included the number of canes, plant height, chlorophyll content in the leaves, fruit yield, weight of 20 fruits and the extract content.

The obtained results show that the height of the canes grown on PLA and PP mulch was significantly higher than for the PP with photodegradant. Cultivation on PP, PLA and PP with photodegradant mulch resulted in a significant increase in the weight of 20 raspberry fruits and higher chlorophyll content in the leaves compared to the control combination.

Abstract

In the period 2011–2013 a technological characteristic of the Ukrainian clone Aligote 61-6 was made at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven. The Bulgarian candidate-clone Aligote N 10 was used for control. During the grapes ripening, the dynamics of sugar accumulation was monitored. Upon technological maturity the indicators of the yields were accounted and mechanical analysis was performed. The chemical composition of the must, the obtained wines and their organoleptic qualities were analyzed. In its mechanical composition, Aligote 61-6 was typically wine one and it did not differ significantly in the texture and structure of the cluster and berry from the control. The theoretical yield of both clones was high. They exhibited good sugar accumulation and similar acid content. Grapes from the control had better technological indicators for obtaining wines of optimal chemical composition and quality. In the 2011 and 2013 vintages, the control wines exceeded those of the Ukrainian clone in terms of sugar-free extract content. The experimental wines Aligote N 10 had higher titratable acidity compared to the Ukrainian clone. The difference in the phenolic substances ratio and the colour intensity in the samples from both clones were insignificant. The control wines were superior in their organoleptic qualities to those of the Ukrainian clone.

Abstract

The study assesses the quality of malt from spring malting barley grown in the Podkarpackie Province, and delivered to the SAN Farmers' Cooperative in 2018. After the initial technological assessment in the laboratory of SAN, the grain was malted in the Department of Agricultural and Food Production Engineering at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Land Management and Environmental Protection of the University of Rzeszow. Moisture, protein content, runoff time, viscosity, pH, wort clarity, extract content and diastatic power were determined in the tested malt, as well as wort obtained from it in the process of mashing. The average parameters of protein content, extractivity of malt ground into flour, of pH and the wort extract were normative, while the other researched parameters did not meet high quality requirements. A high loss of grain mass was noted during malting. After laboratory tests of malt and wort, it was determined that part of the malting raw material is of high malting quality and can be used without modification in the brewhouse for the malting and mashing process.

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