The basic aim of this study was to find relations between the dates of occurrence and characteristics of extensive extreme daily (24-h) precipitation totals (EEDPTs) and pressure systems. The analysis was conducted on the basis of precipitation data from the multi-year period 1956-1980 and the Grosswetterlagen classification of circulation situations. EEDPTs were taken to embrace those cases of maximum annual daily precipitation totals that were registered on the same day at a minimum of 75 precipitation stations. In the years 1956-1980 there were 209 such events. The hypothesis about the effect of a circulation situation on the probability of occurrence of an EEDPT was verified in quantitative terms, the reference being both the entire multi-year period and the seasonal variation in the occurrence of precipitation of this type. Next, circulation situations were compared in terms of amount-related parameters of EEDPTs (mean precipitation, coefficient of variation), their spatial features (perimeter, area), and precipitation volume. The analyses performed show a statistically significant dependence between the atmospheric circulation and extensive extreme precipitation. It was demonstrated that there were circulation situations during which EEDPTs occurred much more often or much more rarely than over the entire multi-year period under study. Also identified was the connection of an atmospheric circulation with the mean amount, coefficient of variation and volume of extensive extreme precipitation.
The results of observations of intensive sturgeon production integrated with an extensive earthen fish pond are described. The main objective of the study was to show how technological modifications applied to enhance nitrogen assimilation in ponds and nutrient retention in aquaculture products influenced fish production. Each of two integrated systems, A and B, consisted of four intensive fish tanks stocked with sturgeon and one extensive carp pond stocked with carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.)) and common nase (Chondrostoma nasus L.). The fish tanks were supplied with water from the extensive pond and the effluent from the tanks was discharged into the same pond, which acted as a biological filter for fish production. System B pond was supplemented with carbohydrates (methanol) and plastic substrates for periphyton development that were installed to increase nutrient utilization. The results of the observations showed better water quality and higher fish production in pond B, but no differences were noted in sturgeon growth performance in system A. The combination of these modifications appeared to be an efficient way of increasing nutrient retention and improving water quality.
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This article intends to analyse crossings between words and the Word. To this purpose, we will present linguistic and spiritual connotations of the terms belonging to the semantic field of the verb “to communicate” and of the idea of communication. We will also deepen the pneumatologic curative issue of the Word. The final section of the article will draw on the description of the extensive references in the relation between words and the Word.
Water quality of collapsible, concrete, earthen and natural ponds under different culture systems were assessed using of Photometer and tester. Temporal and spatial replications of samples were done in triplicates. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 4.6 to 6.8 mg/l, carbon dioxide 1.4 - 3.0 mg/l, nitrate 1.6 - 3.2 mg/l, phosphate 0.8 - 2.3 mg/l, calcium hardness 65- 100 mg/l, magnesium hardness 30 - 50 mg/l and total hardness 80 and 165 mg/l. Conductivity ranged between 346 - 472 μS/cm, total dissolved solids 232 - 316 mg/l, transparency 36 - 82 cm, alkalinity 105 - 245 mg/l, pH 6.35 - 8.03 and temperature 29.1 to 35.9 °C. Significant difference (P<0.05) was obtained among the parameters in the ponds showing the effects of the different culture systems on the water quality. Variations in the water quality was due to the presence of plankton and macrophytes found in earthen and natural ponds where semi-intensive and extensive culture were practiced, use of artificial feed in collapsible and concrete ponds where intensive culture was done, effects of respiration, photosynthesis and decomposition, source of water and materials used for the construction of the ponds. Water quality in the ponds under the different culture systems was good.