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In Fig. 8 samples after the exemplary tests are shown. The heterogeneity of the examined material can be seen.
The quasi-Brazilian test.
4 Computer Simulations
The above material parameters were used to model the test in Abaqus for the 9 cm anchoring. The authors used the X-FEM method of crack propagation. ExtendedFiniteElementMethod is a method of simulating a fracture in the Finite Element Method, which is independent of the mesh. Modification of the shape function of element allows the finite element to be separated
, thus, can be discretized by standard finite elements (FEM) where different element types depending on the element geometry, the form of the used shape functions, and the number of integration points can be differentiated. A refinement of the standard finite element method are the extendedfiniteelementmethods (XFEM), as discussed, for example, in Moës et al. (1999) , with the advantage to capture propagating cracks without the need for re-meshing. An alternative to discretization methods based on continuum mechanics are the discrete models in which the inherent