Asada Leelahavanichkul, Wiwat Chancharoenthana and Somchai Eiam-Ong
an important prognostic factor in several types of CKD and is associated with a decrease in kidney function [ 3 ]. Despite the common prevalence of renal TI fibrosis in CKD regardless of etiology, known biomarkers of TI fibrosis are limited. The current well-known biomarker of CKD, albuminuria, is more associated with glomerulosclerosis than TI fibrosis. The exosome, a 35–40 nm plasma membrane enriched vesicle secreted by various cell types, is a source of interesting biomarkers [ 4 ]. The urinary exosome markers for early TI fibrosis should be beneficial as
K. Huňáková, M. Hluchý, M. Kuricová, K. Ševčík, J. Rosocha and V. Ledecký
1. Admyre, C., Grunewald, J., Thyberg, J., Gripenbäck, S., Tornling G., Eklund A., 2003: Exosomes with major histo-compatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules are present in human BAL fluid. Eur. Respir. J. , 22, 578—583.
2. Bruno, S., Grange, C., Deregibus, M. C., 2009: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles protect against acute tubular injury. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. , 20, 1053—1067.
3. Caby, M. P., Lankar, D., Vincendeau-Scherrer, C., Raposo, G., Bonnerot, C., 2005: Exosomal-like vesicles are present in
Carl Randall Harrell, Crissy Fellabaum, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Aleksandar Arsenijevic and Vladislav Volarevic
19. Kode JA, Mukherjee S, Joglekar MV, Hardikar AA. Mesenchymal stem cells: immunobiology and role in immunomodulation and tissue regeneration. Cytotherapy 2009;11:377e91.
20. Tao H, Han Z, Han ZC, Li Z. Proangiogenic Features of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Applications. Stem Cells Int 2016;2016:1314709.
21. Harrell CR, Simovic Markovic B, Fellabaum C, Arsenijevic A, Djonov V, Arsenijevic N, Volarevic V. Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in the Treatment of Eye Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol 2018
Alicja Gluszko, Shafaq M. Mirza, Katarzyna Piszczatowska, Ireneusz Kantor, Marta Struga and Miroslaw J. Szczepanski
1. Zaborowski MP, Balaj L, Breakefield XO, Lai CP. Extracellular Vesicles: Composition, Biological Relevance, and Methods of Study. Bioscience . 2015;65(8):783-97.
2. Ribeiro MF, Zhu H, Millard RW, Fan GC. Exosomes Function in Pro- and Anti-Angiogenesis. Curr Angiogenes . 2013;2(1):54-9.
3. Escola JM, Kleijmeer MJ, Stoorvogel W, Griffith JM, Yoshie O, Geuze HJ. Selective enrichment of tetraspan proteins on the internal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes and on exosomes secreted by human B-lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 1998
Panthip Rattanasinganchan, Kittipat Sopitthummakhun, Kent Doi, Xuzhen Hu, D. Michael Payne, Trairak Pisitkun and Asada Leelahavanichkul
detection of TI fibrosis using a noninvasive approach would offer a significant advantage in its diagnosis. One such approach involves the detection of disease biomarkers that have been released into body fluids as either intact cells or cellular components, a so-called liquid biopsy [ 4 ]. Cellular components called exosomes, 30-100 nm membrane vesicles secreted from several cell types, are a rich source of potential biomarkers in urine [ 5 , 6 ]. Several types of molecules that are easily degraded in the extracellular environment, such as transcription factors and
Blanka Borowiec, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Greg Hutchings and Joanna Budna-Tukan
reaction to the treated patient. First of all, mechanisms of action should be identified, since they are still not well understood. The long-term safety profile should be investigated as there are currently no sources suggesting long-term stem cell treatment. Differentiation into many types of cells is somewhat limited, which means that they can only be applied to designated types of wounds [ 11 ].
Therapy with the use of exosomes
The solution to the problem above seems to be the use of molecules presenting high therapeutic safety, which are exosomes. They are shed
Elbashir SM, Harborth J, Lendeckel W, Yalcin A, Weber K, Tuschl T. Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells. Nature 411, 494−498, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35078107
Escrevente C, Keller S, Altevogt P, Costa J. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells. BMC Cancer 11, 108, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-108
Etheridge A, Lee I, Hood L, Galas D, Wang K. Extracellular microRNA: a new source of biomarkers. Mutat Res 717
Carl Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Dragica Miloradovic, Aleksandar Acovic, Dragana Miloradovic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic and Vladislav Volarevic
stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2007; 16: 931-952.
21. Mareschi K, Castiglia S, Sanavio F, Rustichelli D, Muraro M, Defedele D, Bergallo M, Fagioli F. Immunoregulatory effects on T lymphocytes by human mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and placenta. Exp Hematol. 2016; 44: 138-150.e1.
22. Harrell CR, Fellabaum C, Simovic Markovic B, Arsenijevic A, Volarevic V. Therapeutic potential of “Exosomes derived Multiple Allogeneic Proteins Paracrine Signaling: Exosomes d-MAPPS” is based on the effects of exosomes, immunosuppressive
Lisa Moncrieff, Paul Mozdziak, Michal Jeseta, Marie Machatkova, Wiesława Kranc and Bartosz Kempisty
Granulosa cells (GCs), otherwise known as ovarian follicular cells, are the largest component of follicular fluid [ 1 ]. Alongside GCs are theca cells, ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells, and oocytes. Together, the Graafian follicle will form to protect the oocyte (folliculogenesis) and germ cells also mature into an egg (oogenesis) [ 2 , 3 ]. Granulosa cells have small cell-secreted vesicles called exosomes which are essential in mediating communication between cells, and they share this role with gap junctions [ 4 ]. Exosomes secrete small
Dmitrijs Užameckis, Svetlana Čapenko, Ināra Logina, Modra Murovska and Jonas Blomberg
amplification of low copy number DNA. J. Forensic Sci., 51 (4), 790-794.
Thery, C., Amigorena, S., Raposo, G., Clayton, A. (2006). Isolation and characterization of exosomes from cell culture supernatants and biological fluids. Curr. Protoc. Cell Biol., Chapt. 3, Unit 3 22.
Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G., Gibson, T. J. (1994). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res., 22 (22), 4673-4680. Available at