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na zachodzi w świetle dokumentów brytyjskich , “Zeszyty Historyczne” (Paris) 1977. Ministry of Education, Education in Exile. History of the Committee for the Education of Poles in Great Britain , London 1956. Polscy studenci – żołnierze we Włoszech 1945–1947 , (ed.) R. LEWICKI, Caldra House, 1996. RADZIK, T., Brytyjska pomoc edukacyjna , in: Mobilizacja uchodźstwa do walki politycznej 1945– 1990, Londyn 1995. RADZIK, T., Profesor Tadeusz Sulimirski – archeolog (1898–1983) , in: Kimmerowie, Scytowie i Sarmaci. Księga poświęcona pamięci profesora Tadeusza

References Amos NS (2010) Protestant Exiles in England: Martin Bucer, the Measured Approach to Reform, and the Elizabethan Settlement. In Wendebourg D (ed) Sister Reformations: The Reformation in Germany and England. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, pp. 151-174. Anderson M (1975) Peter Martyr: A Reformer in Exile. Nieuwkoop: B De Graaf. Anderson M (1990) Vista Tigurina: Peter Martyr and European Reform (1556-1562). The Harvard Theological Review 83(2): 181-206. Avis P (2008) John Jewel: Anglicanism’s Bane or Blessing? Ecclesiology 4(3): 345-355. Barrow H (1591) A

References Alonso-Breto, Isabel, “‘Enormous Cracks, Towering Mountains’: The Displacement of Migration as Intimate Violence in Sri Lanka-Australia Migration Narratives.” South Asian Review, 2012 33. 3: 125-138. Print. Barbour, John D. “Edward Said and the Space of Exile.” Theology & Literature, 2007 21.3: 203-301. Print. Chetty, Rajendra. “Exile and Return in Farida Karodia’s Other Secrets.” Indias Abroad: The Diaspora Writes Back. Ed. Rajendra Chetty and Pier Paolo Piciucco. STE Publishers: Johannesburg, 2004. 143-150. Print. Danticat, Edwidge. Create


Considered “the great witch of Brazilian literature”, acclaimed as the best woman-writer of Jewish origin and the perfect example of an exquisite reconfiguration of European modernist ideas, Clarice Lispector is a fascinating author. This is obvious since her first novel Perto do coração selvagem (Near to the Wild Heart, 1943), a book that was awarded several literary prizes in Brazil, even if afterwards the text would be often ignored within the critical studies dedicated to Lispector. Compared to Borges and Kafka and even to the narrative strategies used by Virginia Woolf (apparently influenced by James Joyce’s stream of consciousness, even if Lispector underlined that she had not read Joyce’s creation much later) her book entitled Agua viva (1973) represents a perfect example of a very special kind of aesthetic experiment, underlying the importance of art (painting or literature) in its protagonist’s life. Without being precisely an autobiography, this book is obviously influenced by the author’s life and work, also expressing Lispector’s ideas on two important issues of 20th century Latin American literature: exile and violence.


One of the consequences of the 1939 exile was the widespread emergence, or re-emergence, of cultural community centres, periodicals and magazines, brief treatises and books that gave priority to local events over outside influences. Xavier Benguerel, Domènec Guansé, C. A. Jordana, Joan Oliver and Francesc Trabal, who formed the Chile group, held translation as their weapon of choice in the political and cultural struggle. Here, we look at the most remarkable achievements, collective strategies and ways of thinking about language and translation.

–65. Franzenburg, G. (2010). MLG-LCM 1945–2010 . Germany: Münster. Hilton, L. (2009). Cultural nationalism in exile: the case of polish and Latvian displaced persons. Historian 71 (2), 2080–317. Hiden, J., Made, V., Smith, D. (Ed.) (2008). The Baltic question during the cold war . UK: Oxford. Iliško, D., Skrinda, A., & Mičule, I. (2014). Envisioning the future: Bachelor’s and Master’s degree students’ perspectives. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 16 (2), 88–102. Jacobmeyer, W. (1985). V om Zwangsarbeiter zum Heimatlosen Auslaender, Die Displace Persons in


After the proclamation of the Republic of Latvia in 1918, Latvia experienced a rapid influx of youth into its capital city of Riga, looking to obtain education in universities. Students began to build their academic lives and student societies. In 1923, students of the Art Academy of Latvia founded the “Dzintarzeme” (“Amberland”) fraternity. The aim of “Dzintarzeme” was to unite nationally minded students of the Art Academy of Latvia and to promote the development of national art and self-education. Most “Dzintarzeme” members were faithful to the old masters and Latvian art. This phenomenon is significant, because “Dzintarzeme” members grew up with Latvian painting traditions, which are a remarkable heritage of interwar Latvia.

In 1940, when Latvia was occupied by the Soviet Union, “Dzintarzeme” was banned. A part of “Dzintarzeme” members were deported, killed in war, went missing, or stayed in the Latvian SSR; the remaining chose exile. Although scattered throughout the United States of America, Canada, and Australia, some members were able to rebuild and sustain the fraternity’s life, gathering its members, organising trips and anniversary art exhibitions.

The aim of this research is to reflect on “Dzintarzeme’s” activities in exile (1958–1987), focusing on the main factors of Latvian national art conservation policy: first, the ability of “Dzintarzeme’s” ideology to preserve the values of Latvian national art in an international environment, and second, the problem of generational change and the enrollment of young Latvian artists who continued to maintain “Dzintarzeme” values in exile.


The present article reflects on and emphasises the importance of the still-unrecognised work by Catalan writers who bore witness to the exile of 1939 and the preceding historical period of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) and the Civil War (1936–1939). The article explores how these exiled writers and their literary corpora played a fundamental role in recovering Catalan historical collective memory and identity. In particular, it focusses on two writers, Domènec Guansé and Vicenç Riera Llorca, in the light of recent studies of literary history, which have begun this process of re-evaluating the literature of exile, and thereafter relates their work to the theories of Lowenthal, Ricoeur and Traverso regarding the past and memory.

. Cultural Politics 9(3). 313-322. Boym, Svetlana. 2001. The future of nostalgia. New York: Basic Books. Culler, Jonathan. 2008. Why lyric? PMLA 123(1). 201-206. Dancus, Adriana Margareta. 2011. Diasporic feeling and displaced nostalgia: A case study: Importeksport and Blodsbåxnd [sic]. Scandinavian Studies 83(2). 247-266. Fjellestad, Danuta Zadworna. 1995. The Insertion of the self into the space of borderless possibility: Eva Hoffman’s exiled body. MELUS 20(2). 133-147. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 2004. Bodies on the move: A poetics of home and diaspora. Tulsa Studies in

aspects of John McGahern’s Short Fiction as Exemplified by ‘Gold Watch,’ ‘Like All Other Men,’ and ‘The White Boat.’” Journal of the Short Story in English (Autumn 2009). Web. 15 Oct. 2013. Said, Edward W. Reflections on Exile and Other Essays . Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2000. Suleiman, Susan Rubin, ed. Exile and Creativity: Signposts, Travelers, Outsiders, Backward Glances . Durham and London: Duke UP, 1998. Summers, Frank. “Ethnic Invisibility, Identity and the Analytic Process.” Psychoanalytic Psychology 31.3 (2014): 410-425. Web. 10 May 2016. Wills, Clair