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Musculoskeletal changes to chronic exercise offer a temporal framework for which to anticipate strength improvements and/or attenuation of in-flight losses from exercise hardware and/or protocols. Temporal changes refer to the rate and magnitude of adaptations over time, which help formulate training strategies to limit in-flight strength losses and thereby optimize long-term musculoskeletal health for long-term exposure to microgravity ( Fleck and Kraemer, 2014 ). Two 60-day bed rest studies assessed temporal adaptations to concurrent exercise
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Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in striated muscle might lead to major injuries, like hamstring tears (Brockett et al., 2001 ). Predominantly the active lengthening of the muscle (eccentric contraction) can cause disruptions of the sarcomeres as well as other parts of the muscle cells (cell membrane, sarcoplasmic reticulum, T-tubes) ( Proske and Morgan, 2001 ).
Numerous indirect markers such as contractile proteins (like myosin heavy chain; Sorichter et al., 2001 ), isoenzymes, creatine kinase (CK; Stäubli et al., 1985 ), myoglobin
Matthew Tenan, Robert McMurray, Peter Hosick and Anthony Hackney
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