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“FlorNatur LBG - Ochrona ex situ zagrożonych i chronionych roślin, dziko rosnących w zachodniej Polsce”. Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie 12(25): 313-327. Jackowiak B., Celka Z., Chmiel J., Latowski K. & Żukowski W. 2007. Red list of vascular flora of Wielkopolska (Poland). Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 5(8): 95-127. Jałowska M. 2011. FlorNaturLBG - ex situ conservation of endangered and protected plant species. In: W. Włoch (ed.). Back to Eden. Challenges for contemporary gardens, pp.: 33-43. Katowice-Ustroń-Mikołów, 21-23.05.2011. Karczewska M. 2009. Nowe stanowisko Pulsatilla


Significant increase of biological stability, timber volume, and economic value of forests is impossible without refinement and improvement of the organization, and implementation of forest seed production on a genetic and breeding basis. It is possible to solve this task by creating and efficiently functioning in situ and ex situ facilities.

In Ukraine, the basic principles of plus selection are envisaged, which include the selection and testing progeny of plus trees. The total number of progeny tests in Ukraine is 106 plots, in which 1,079 genotypes of plus trees are presented. Taking into account the total number of plus trees in Ukraine (4,560), only 23.7% was subjected to progeny tests. The largest number of progeny tests are represented by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) – 76 plots and a significantly smaller number of plots for English oak (Quercus robur L.) – 21. The corresponding representation of genotypes is for pine – 520, for oak – 365.

The area of tree breeding units in Ukraine is very small (0.4–0.6%) of the total forest area in the region. Despite the available areas, the use of in situ and ex situ objects for harvesting seed in Ukraine is low, around 30%. In the central region of Ukraine, the share of in situ and ex situ objects from the total forest area is 0.1–0.5%. On these sites, from 0 to 54% is harvested, which is insufficient.

According to the results of the conducted research, it was established that the areas of permanent forest-seed base (in situ and ex situ units) are insignificant and their use is insufficient. Testing of more than 70% of the selected plus trees is required. An important trend is to study the genotype-environment interaction in connection with trends of global climate change.

Vill. 3 pp. Kampinoski Park Narodowy. Hereźniak J. 2002. Regionalna lista wymarłych i zagrożonych gatunków roślin naczyniowych północnej części Wyżyny Śląsko-Krakowskiej. Acta Univ. Lodz., Folia Biol. et Oecol. 1: 39-63. Jackowiak B., Celka Z., Chmiel J., Latowski K. & Żukowski W. 2007. Red list of vascular flora of Wielkopolska (Poland). Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 5-8: 95-127. Kojs P. 2013. A role of the network of Polish Botanical Gardensin ex situ conservation. International Conference “Ex situ conservation of plants - problems and solutions”, Poznań, 23-25 January


The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variation of growth traits, wood basic density, dry mass of crown, leaf, and stem, and carbon stock within and between two Genipa ameri­cana L. provenances. The provenance and progeny test was installed in the Teaching, Research and Extension Farm, located in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The test was established using a randomized block design with two provenances and 36 progenies, a spacing of 3 x 2 m, four replicates, and six plants per plot. At 11 years of age, height and diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured. To estimate wood basic density, biomass, and carbon stock, 45 plants were thinned. Growth traits for crown, leaf, and stem, as well as wood basic specific gravity showed significant differences. Both provenances pre­sent high carbon storage, demonstrating the potential of this species to be included in carbon credit programs that help to minimize the effects of global warming. In general, heritability values were low, suggesting limited genetic control of the eva­luated traits. However, the traits presented a high coefficient of genetic variation, indicating adequate sampling among popu­lations; these results are promising for ex situ conservation and for future breeding programs.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of common yew, Taxus baccata L., with respect to canopy openness. The plants were growing in ex-situ conservation plantations (established in 2008) in the understory of different tree species. Eleven forest plantations belonging to the following five forest districts were inventoried: Rokita, Baligród, Kołaczyce, Międzylesie and Henryków. In each plantation, the height and height increment of 200 yews were measured and gap light transmission indices were determined.

The canopy species affecting yew growth most significantly were oak (Quercus sp.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), followed by Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), silver fir (Abies alba L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The most favorable development of yew occurred at 30% canopy openness. An increasing light transmission index correlated with a decrease in the proportion of treelike yews. An insufficient amount of light resulted in a low height increment of yews growing under the canopy and an extended period of direct competition of yews with herbaceous species.


Native populations of endemic, rare and threatened Limonium species (L. meyeri, L. bulgaricum, L. latifolium, L. vulgare, L. asterotrichum and L. gmelinii) in Bulgaria were monitored and found seriously declined. To preserve these wild genotypes, an approach involving in vitro propagation of explants isolated from immature inflorescence stems was applied at the Institute of Ornamental Plants, Sofia. The rooted plantlets produced were acclimated and grown outdoors under an optimized cultivation regime, which resulted in the establishment of an ex situ plantation. Plant performance ex situ (determined by leaf rosette diameter, plant height and the number of flower stems) was substantially improved and the variation in the biometric indices was found remarkably lower than in natural environment. The developmental stages of ex situ plants appeared with a delay in relation to their onset in the native environment, but occurred synchronously within each species. Analysis of germination of seeds harvested from ex situ and in situ grown plants showed species-specific behaviour, but in general, seed vitality remained relatively low in laboratory conditions, in the soil and in vitro. In order to assess the potential for protecting the native Limonium species from uncontrolled harvesting, the possibility for the production of cut flowers in ex situ conditions was studied. High yield of cut flowers from ex situ plants in comparison with the potential yield from the wild plants and extended vase life in comparison with commercially produced Limonium sinuatum were obtained. The results demonstrated that the applied micropropagation and agrotechnique for protected cultivation are reliable tools for ex situ conservation of the endangered Limonium genotypes in the Bulgarian flora. In addition to its advantage as a rescue measure, the developed system was shown to be suitable for obtaining cut flowers of competitive market quality.

- ZAMBONELLII, A. (2011): Ex situ conservation and exploitation of fungi in Italy. Plant Biosystems, 145 (4): 997-1005. VENTURELLAA, G. - ALTOBELLIB, E. - BERNICCHIAC, A. - DI PIAZZAD, S. - DONNINIE, D. - GARGANOA, M. L. - GORJONF, S. P. -GRANITOG, V. M. - LANTIERIH, A. - LUNGHINIG, D. - MONTEMARTINID, A. - PADOVANI, F. - PAVARINOD,M. - PECORAROJ, L. - PERINIK, C. - RANAL, G. - RIPAM, C. - SALERNIK, E. - SAVINOB, E. - TOMEIN, P. E. - VIZZINIO, A. - ZAMBONELLIP, A. - ZOTTID, M. (2011): Fungal biodiversity and in situ conservation in Italy. Plant Biosystems, 145 (4): 950-957.


Among the ex situ methods for the preservation of forest tree germplasm, conventional seed banking is considered the most efficient method for the majority of species whilst cryopreservation has an important role in long-term conservation. The influence of cryoprotectants prior to liquid nitrogen (LN) storage and osmoconditioning priming treatments with polyethylene glycol (PEG) after LN storage were evaluated for germination (%), germination value (GV) and mean germination time (MGT) in seeds of Cryptomeria japonica. Sugi seeds were treated with two cryoprotectants (DMSO and PVS2) before immersion into LN and stored for three days. Although the C. japonica seeds survived liquid nitrogen treatment, their viability was reduced from 25% of intact seeds to 17% in LN. The seeds treated with 35% DMSO showed higher germination (28%) as compared with seeds directly-immersed in LN without cryoprotectant treatment. In contrast, PVS2 pretreated seeds decreased germination (13%). Two concentrations of PEG priming treatments were carried out. Osmoconditioning treatment in -0.4 MPa PEG solution after removal from LN enhanced the subsequent germination percentage and decreased MGT. PEG treatments at both -0.4 and -1.2MPa to PVS2 pretreated seeds before cryopreservation partially alleviated the negative effect of PVS2. DMSO pretreated seeds immersed into LN and treated with -0.4MPa PEG maintained the 28% of germination obtained in the control conditions and reduced the mean germination time (MGT). It can therefore be summarized that pretreatment with 35% DMSO was suitable for the cryopreservation of C. japonica seeds whilst the PEG priming treatment circumvented imbibitional damage after LN exposure.


Autochthonous genetic resources of woody plants have become seriously endangered in Flanders because of the particularly low and fragmented forest cover, centuries of intensive forest use in this highly populated area and the wide-spread usage of non-autochthonous planting stock in reforestation and landscape plantings. Intraspecific hybridisation between remnant autochthonous populations and foreign genotypes, which can show inadequate adaptation, may influence the autochthonous genetic constitution and fitness in the long term. As several European countries face similar problems, the objective of this paper is to outline the conservation measures that are taken in Flanders. The central aim is to maintain and create the necessary conditions for natural and flexible evolution of the genetic diversity of autochthonous trees and shrubs. An inventory survey to locate remaining autochthonous populations was started in 1997 and will be completed in 2006. Relict populations are preserved in clonal banks. Central issues are the production of autochthonous planting stock through in situ seed collection, the approval of seed sources and stands and the creation of seed orchards. Conservation actions are discussed.


The paper presents the results of geobotanical studies on the distribution and resources of Aster tripolium L. and Plantago maritima L, two rare halophytes in Poland. The research was conducted in northern Poland, along the Baltic coast in 2013. The present distribution of the two species was compared with historical data and general trends of and threats to these two species were examined. In total, 33 sites of A. tripolium and 18 of P. maritima were found in the research area. The resources of both species have been perceptibly depleting during last 150 years, which is mostly due to human agencies (e.g. habitat devastation caused by growing urban areas and the change in management and/or habitat condition). In order to preserve both species, it may be necessary to start an ex situ conservation program.