In Translation Studies as well as in any other discipline dealing with human communication, we can assume without any doubts that adaptation is the most efficient communicational strategy. Although it is a tactical tool used to solve isolated communicational problems or conflicts, it is far and foremost a strategy with a long term general purpose closely related to a communicational and even a lifelong project.
This paper will examine the implications of adaption as tactical and strategic ways of solving cultural dissimilarities from the translation studies perspective. Such reflection will be illustrated with examples taken from the so-called field of pragmatic translation activity but also from translation history. Particularly, we will look at what was at stake when Spanish missionaries translated religious texts while serving their purpose of evangelization. This will lead us to envisage the product of such adaptations as syncretism, métissage or hybridity. Those different concepts, while not contradictory, have distinct ideological and political implications when it comes to the interpretation of colonial history.
This paper will also deal with the concepts of intertextuality and intermediality as ideal environments for adaptation. We will show that adaptation in translation studies is at the crossroads of various disciplines that it can enrich.
This paper deals with sixteenth-century Mexican monastic architecture and art. Mexican monasteries were constructed all over the territory of New Spain (1635-1821) in relation to the need to evangelize the native American populations. The article discusses the place of this architecture and art in the historiography of the history of art taking into consideration the changes of paradigms and putting particular emphasis on anthropology and its approaches. In terms of method, it is interdisciplinary and combines synchronic and diachronic perspectives.
Geographical aspects of contemporary Czech religiosity are discussed in this paper. The main objective is to understand and approximate the spaces and places of faith which Czech believers inhabit, construct and reconstruct. An original focus on young believers was broadened to include priests, preachers and older members of several churches in Brno city, and the Přerov and Ústí nad Labem regions. Concepts of space and place, sacred spaces, and the imagery of post-mortem spaces are treated within the context of so-called secularisation and related phenomena. The methodology is based on an inductive qualitative approach using the Grounded Theory of Strauss and Corbin. The data are presented, discussed and ordered following the main themes originating from the research, including: (i) spaces of regular activities (related to the faith); (ii) spaces of dissemination and evangelisation of the faith; (iii) personal places linked with faith; and (iv) an introduction to the imagery of post-mortem spaces. The results document a long-term shift in the attitudes of believers, the change from rather public spaces of community gathering to personal places, influenced by specific secularisation tendencies. Also, the results represent the typical places of faith which are constructed and reconstructed by current Czech believers, and the current imagery of post-mortem spaces.
In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.
If “consumer brand engagement” is what happens in isolation, in a consumer’s own individual mind and thoughts, then “social brand engagement” is the diametrical opposite of this. Social brand engagement is a social act full of culture, meaning, language, and values. With social brand engagement, relationships widen from person-brand to person-person-brand.
This can take different forms. While some consumers remain passive, others act more or less creatively in favor of or against brands. Some marketers are happy with the forms of evangelizing in which consumers simply spread brand messages. But the most authentic and believable form of endorsement, and therefore the optimal state, is marked by the creative expression and use of the brand. Here, people play positively and socially with the brand. They view it as a valued and valuable cultural resource and such social brand engagement has meaningful social, creative and productive outcomes.
In successful social brand engagement, both consumers and producers play active roles, but one party has to take the lead. Companies have historically had major problems letting consumers take over some of their former responsibilities. For successful authentication to happen, however, putting consumers in the driver’s seat is sometimes—but certainly not always—necessary.
Jean Vanier is the founder of two major international community-based organizations for people with intellectual disabilities: the L’Arche Communities and the “Faith & Light” movement. He is a great Catholic and a teacher of merciful love. His life is a message to the world that each person is an infinite value for who they are, not for what they can do, and that each person is unique and sacred, no matter of their health condition, disability or fragility. Each person is created in God’s image and each one has an inner beauty, a capacity to love and to be loved, and possesses inherent qualities of belonging, bonding, friendship and spirituality. Persons with intellectual disabilities are a gift for the society. Thanks to the testimony of his life, Jean Vanier has developed the international network of L’Arche Communities all over the world. The communities are based on family-like residential communities, where people with and without intellectual disabilities share life together in the spirit of faith, dignity of every human being, understanding, love and joy. The L’Arche homes and communities are rooted in the ideas of “living with,” and not just “doing for” those with mental disabilities. Weakness carries a secret power within, it can open up the hearts to God’s grace. Our contemporary world strongly needs the weak, as they evangelize us, transform us and help us to be more human. They help us discover that the good news of Jesus is announced not to those who serve the poor, but to those who are themselves poor and need God’s merciful love and forgiveness.
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