Maciej Kryza, Wojciech Mill, Anthony J. Dore, Małgorzata Werner and Marek Błaś
Sulphur and nitrogen deposition were calculated with the FRAME model and used to assess the exceedances of the critical loads for acidification and eutrophication of natural ecosystems in Poland. For the first time two tools: the FRAME and SONOX models were used jointly to provide information on ecosystems at risk. The FRAME model obtained close agreement with available sulphur and nitrogen wet deposition measurements. The total mass of sulphur deposited in Poland in year 2008 was estimated as 292 Gg S. Total deposition of nitrogen (oxidized + reduced) is 389 Gg N. 11% of the ecosystems in Poland were calculated to be at risk of acidification due to deposition of sulphur and nitrogen. In the case of eutrophication, over 95% of terrestrial ecosystems are at risk due to the large deposition of nitrogen compounds.
. 23 p. 2657-2662 doi.10.1002/hyp.7835.
HUSSIAN M., GRIMVALL A., PETERSEN W. 2004. Estimation of the human impact on nutrient loads carried by the Elbe River. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 96 p. 15-33.
ILNICKI P., GÓRECKI K., MELCER B. 2008. Eutrofizacja cieków wodnych zlewni rzeki Warty w latach 1992-2002 [Eutrophication of streams in the Warta River basin in 1992-2002]. Poznań. AR ISBN 978-83-7160-531-4 pp. 277.
ILNICKI P., FARAT R., GÓRECKI K., LEWANDOWSKI P. Variability of nutrient transport in the
Aleksandra Ziemińska-Stolarska and Jerzy Skrzypski
Review of Mathematical Models of Water Quality
Water is one of the main elements of the environment which determine the existence of life on the Earth, affect the climate and limit the development of civilization. Water resources management requires constant monitoring in terms of its qualitative-quantitative values. Proper assessment of the degree of water pollution is the basis for conservation and rational utilization of water resources. Water quality in lakes and dams is undergoing continuous degradation caused by natural processes resulting from eutrophication and due to anthropogenic reasons. One of the tools that are used to solve problems of surface water pollution is modelling of changes which take place in lake waters and associated water quality changes. In the last thirty years a rapid development of mathematical modelling of water resources quality has been observed. A number of computer models have been designed which are successfully applied in practice in many countries, including Poland. This paper presents an overview of mathematical models for assessment of water quality in dam reservoirs. Description of the WASP program which will be used for modelling water quality in the Sulejow Reservoir was the focal point.
In this publication the eutrophication level of Kozlowa Gora dam reservoir base on composition species of algae and biomass of phytoplankton, was defined. The evaluation of phytoplankton biomass was achieved by two methods (direct - for biovolume by comparing the shape of algae to geometrical figures and indirect - base on concentrations of chlorophyll a). The trophic estimation of reservoir water was achieved on the grounds of classifications, which included the boundary values of phytoplankton biomass and concentrations of chlorophyll a. These boundary values are characteristic for individual trophic types of water. The typical species for eutrophic water were observed in the samples of water taking from the Kozlowa Gora dam reservoir, also the highest average percentage share of Cyanophyta in whole biomass of phytoplankton was observed (it may indicate on the advanced eutrophication processes). The research concerning the average biomass of phytoplankton and average concentrations of chlorophyll a allowed classification water of this reservoir to eutrophic and hipertrophic.
Agata Karło, Aleksandra Ziembińska-Buczyńska, Maciej Pilarczyk and Joanna Surmacz-Górska
Eutrophication process is a serious problem in water ecosystems. There is a great need to study the relation between the physico-chemical condition of water and the influence of these parameters on the diversity of biological life, especially on changes in the structure of microbiocenoses. The most interesting are bacteria and microalgae, due to the important roles they play in maintaining the balance of the aquatic environment. In this study, biodiversity analysis of eukaryotic microalgae and bacteria in two artificial water ecosystems - fish farming ponds - was performed. Aquaculture was based on IMTA technology, in which every part of the trophic chain plays a significant role in maintaining the balance in the ecosystems. Experimental intensive - extensive systems differed in terms of nutrient loads, ponds were characterized by high loads of organic and inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. During the experimental period, the physicochemical conditions, quantitative genotypic structure of the two biocenoses being studied and the relation between these factors were monitored and investigated. For the biodiversity analysis, the PCR - DGGE technique was used. The results of preliminary research showed that there is a correlation between nutrient loads, diversity expressed in the Shannon-Wiener Index and the overall condition of experimental systems. Higher loadings of nutrient promote the development of bacteria and microalgae without any influence on the balance in the artificial ecosystem being tested.
Controlling of eutrophication in aquatic environments
This paper reviews various methods of eutrophication controlling in water bodies. The purpose of this presentation is to analyze the role of eutrophication in water bodies and to address the importance of various instruments of controlling this process.
Agnieszka Kolanek, Rafalina Korol, Marzenna Strońska and Urszula Szyjkowska
Assessment of water pollution by nitrates in the Middle Odra Basin
The objective of the study was to characterise the quality of surface waters in order to determine their vulnerability to pollution by nitrogen compounds from agricultural activity, as well as to specify the areas with increased exposure, where nitrogen runoff from agricultural sources has to be reduced. It was necessary to determine surface waters liable to pollution by these compounds due to the fact that agricultural production should be carried out in the way which limits and prevents water pollution by nitrogen compounds of agricultural origin. The study addressed the following issues: the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the surface waters of the Middle Odra Basin, and the extent of eutrophication in flowing inland waters (with nitrogen as the main nutrient). The results have been plotted in figures and gathered in tables.
Elka Kraleva, Milena Pavlova, Elisa Mazo Bedia, Petya Borisova and Luchezar Pehlivanov
The Srebarna Lake Biosphere Reserve is a protected natural site of national and international significance. It characterizes with extremely high biodiversity, being one of the last wetlands along the Lower Danube preserved in relatively natural state; the lake area is NATURA 2000 site. This study was designed to further research on the impact of intensive agriculture on the lake’s ecological status. First task was to find an evidence for link between intensive agriculture and the loading of the lake with nutrients. The second was a study on the PAH’s penetration into the lake ecosystem. An overview was made on drinking water data for 2 underground (drinking water springs). Dyakova spring’s water displayed good ecological state after measured parameters PO3-4 , NO2-3, NO- 2 and pH. Todorankina spring did not fell within the boundaries of good and very good conditions. Increased nitrate levels in water samples leads us to conclude that agriculture in this part of the surrounding area affect groundwater quality in the biosphere reserve. Results from GC-MS analysis proved, that there is no groundwater contamination, responsible for the existing (although low) concentrations of PAH found in the lake.
.A., 1986, Phosphate transport during hypolimnetic aeration, Arch. Hydrobiol. 108: 269-280.
Mortimer C. H., 1942, The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes (Part II), J. Ecol. 30: 147-201.
Siuda W., Kaliński T., Kauppinen E., Chróst R. 2013, Eutrofizacja południowej części kompleksu Wielkich Jezior Mazurskich w latach 1977-2011. Przyczyny, mechanizmy i skutki (Eutrophication of the southern part of the Great Masurian Lakes complex in the years 1977-2011. Causes, mechanisms and effects). Retrieved from http://www.zemuw.pl/pl/files/docs/JM_Eutrofizacja
Harmonisation of the laws of the Member States regarding the protection of the environment is one of the tasks of the European Union. Poland joined EU in 2004 and took on various commitments for the improvement of water status. In particular, the Water Framework Directive was a major breakthrough in the assessment of aquatic ecosystems. For the classification of stratified and non-stratified lakes Ecological State Macrophyte Index (ESMI) has been used. In Poland, the method for assessing the ecological status of lakes based on macrophytes has been developed for routine water monitoring shortly after joining the European Union. This index is one of the biological elements in the assessment of ecological status. It considers the whole plant communities in the reservoir. The key factor that ESMI reacts to is anthropopressure, which manifests itself as eutrophication. However, it is crucial that the lakes are also subject to different pressures. In this situation, the ESMI rating becomes only an indicative method. The article describes the role, process of evaluation and the most common problems related to ESMI