Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai, Nichara Ruangdaraganon, Rawiwan Roongpraiwan, Tasnawat Sombuntham, Pat Rojmahamongkol and Rungtip Prasertchai
evaluation in identifying the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. Genet Med. 2008; 10:301-5.
8. Veenstra-Vanderweele J, Christian SL, Cook EH, Jr. Autism as a paradigmatic complex genetic disorder. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2004; 5:379-405.
9. Johnson CP, Myers SM, and the Council on Children with Disabilities. Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2007; 120:1183-215.
10. Freitag CM. The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature
Gürler Hande, Findik Arzu, Gültiken Nilgün, Ay Serhan Serhat, Çiftçi Alper, Koldaş Ece, Arslan Serhat and Findik Murat
1. Bradley AJ: Bovine mastitis: An evolving disease. Vet J, 164, 117-126, 2002.
2. Ergun Y, Aslantas O, Kirecci E, Sarıbay MK, Ates AT, Ulku A, Demir C: Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in Awassi dairy ewes in southern Turkey. Turk J Vet Anim Sci, 33, 477-483, 2009.
3. Ozenc E, Vural MR, Seker E, Ucar M: An evaluation of subclinical mastitis during lactation in Anatolian buffaloes. Turk J Vet Anim Sci, 32, 359-368, 2008.
4. Pellegrino M, Giraudo J, Raspanti C, Odierno L, Bogni C: Efficacy of immunization against
Background: The incidence of acute pulmonary embolism has been increasing over the past few years. Prevention, early detection and appropriate treatment will decrease morbidity and mortality.
Objective: We identified the etiologies and treatment outcomes of acute pulmonary embolism.
Methods: We enrolled hospitalized patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism at Srinagarind Hospital between January 1, 2002 and October 31, 2009.
Results: Over the eight-year period, 169 patients were diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism; 95 (56.2%) females and 74 (43.8%) males. The mean age was 54.1 years (range, 18-85). 13% presented with massive pulmonary embolism. The most common presentation was dyspnea (65.1%). Arterial hypoxemia (88.8%) and sinus tachycardia (58.3%) were the common initial clinical findings. Twenty percent of chest radiograph were unremarkable. The most common etiology was cancer (62.1%), mostly solid malignancies (98/105) e.g., cholangiocarcinoma, gynecologic malignancy, and lung cancer. The second and the third common etiologies were immobilization/stasis (8.3%) and connective tissue disease (7.1%). After treatment, 58.6% of the patients improved while 21.3% died in hospital. The main therapeutic modality was anticoagulation. The treated group had better outcomes than those receiving only supportive care. Only one patient underwent thromboembolectomy but died. The complications during treatment were acute respiratory failure (34.9%), shock (18.3%), and bleeding (6.5%).
Conclusions: The most common etiology of acute pulmonary embolism was cancer, especially solid malignancies. Immobilization and connective tissue disease were the other common etiologies. The treatment group had a better prognosis than those with supportive care only.
Brindusa Tilea, Simona Teches, S. Voidazan, Klara Brinzaniuc and I. Tilea
: results of a contemporary population-based profile of 1536 patients in Australia. Eur Heart J. 31(15), 1890-7. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq110.
7. Murdoch, D.R., Corey, G.R. & Hoen, B. et al. (2009). Clinical presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis in the 21st century: the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study. Arch Intern Med. 169(5), 463-73. DOI: 10.1001/ archinternmed.2008.603.
8. Selton-Suty, C., Célard, M. & Le Moing, V. et al. (2012). Preeminence of Staphylococcus aureus in
Mohammad Ali Bahar, Mohammadreza Pakyari and Rayeheh Bahar
Background: Burns are a major public health problem. They often require intensive care and long periods of hospitalization. In Tehran, about 5% of all hospitalized injuries are burns. There are no published long-term epidemiological studies regarding burn injuries of adults in Iran.
Objective: To identify risk factors for burn injuries and provide a starting point for the establishment of an effective prevention plan.
Methods: We analyzed the demographic, etiological, and clinical data of 1860 burn patients admitted to a major acute care hospital in Tehran between March 2010 and April 2011. Data were obtained from the registry recorded in Shahid Motahari Trauma Hospital and evaluated using a chi-square test.
Results: Males were more than twice as likely to be burn patients than females (72.0% vs. 28.0%). Second and third-degree burns with a body surface area of 21%-30% constituted the highest injury reported (75.3%). The most common causes of the recorded burns were natural gas, gasoline (42%) and open fire (10.2%). Unintentional burns were reported in 85% of the cases, and 15% of the burn victims were suicide-related incidents; mainly among women. In 75% of suicide attempts, women set themselves on fire to commit suicide. The mean duration of hospitalization was 25 days and the mortality rate was 10.7%. Mean age of reported deaths was 38.6 years; with a mean of 30 years among women and 51.5 years among men.
Conclusion: The group at highest risk was young men 21-30 years old. However, an astonishing finding was that 75% of suicidal-related incidents involved women setting themselves on fire. Those with the highest mortality rate were victims of burns with gas, gasoline, and kerosene; with a mean age of 30 years of death among women.
submitted the ICMJE form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. The authors disclose no conflict of interest.
 Ricketts S, Gill HS, Fialkov JA, Matic DB, Antonyshyn OM. Facial fractures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016; 137:424e–44e. Ricketts S Gill HS Fialkov JA Matic DB Antonyshyn OM. Facial fractures Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 137 424e 44e
 Boonkasem S, Rojonaworarit C, Kansorn S, Punkabut S. Incidence and etiology of maxillofacial trauma: a retrospective analysis of patients attending a provincial hospital in northern Thailand. J Pub
aetiology of basal cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol 2003;149(Suppl 66):50-2.
8. De Gruijl FR, Van Kranen HJ, Mullenders LH. UV-induces DNA damage, repair, mutations and oncogenic pathways in skin cancer. J Photochem Photobiol 2001;63:19-27.
9. Holíková Z, Massi D, Lotti T, Hercogová J. Insight into the pathogenesis of sporadic basal cell carcinoma. Int J Dermatol 2004;43:865-9.
10. Bodak N, Queille S, Avril MF, Bouadjar B, Drougard C, Sarasin A, et al. High levels of patched gene mutations in basal cell carcinomas from patients
Sergey D. Iliev, Lyubomir Ts. Beshev, Kiril L. Nedyalkov, Dobromir D. Nguen, Valentina E. Edreva-Besheva, Mariya P. Sredkova, Yuliya M. Belcheva and Emiliya J. Dimitrova
The aim of the study was to define the spectrum and susceptibility of microorganisms, isolated from diabetic foot ulcers in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, treated at the clinic of surgery, and compare microbial findings of specimens collected superficially and from deep tissues. The study included 19 patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes with clinical signs of infection. All patients were with poorly controlled diabetes and staged from 3rd to 5th grade according to the Wagner diabetic foot scale. Swab samples from non-debrided wounds and biopsy samples from deep tissues were collected from each patient. Specimens were inoculated on media for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Identification and susceptibility testing of the isolated oiganisms were performed by conventional methods, and VITEK 2 and mini API Systems (bioMerieux, France). A total of 88 bacterial isolates were cultured, comprising 56 clinical strains. Gram positive bacteria were the most common isolated organisms (53.57%), followed by Gram negative bacteria (26.78%) and anaerobic bacteria (19.64%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism detected (10 strains), followed by Enterococcus spp. (7 strains), Escherichia coli (7 strains), Bacteroides spp. (6 strains) and various other organisms of low incidence. Polymicrobial infection was detected in 17 (89.47%) of the patients. In most of the cases infections were caused by 3 bacterial species. Mixed aerobic/anaerobic infections were detected in 9 (47.3%) patients. In 15 (78.94%) patients, there was a coincidence of bacterial findings from superficial and deep tissue samples. The strains isolated were susceptible to commonly used antimicrobials for treatment of diabetic foot infection. The predominant part of the diabetic foot infections were polymicrobial, caused by association between two or three microbial species. In half of the cases the infection was mixed. There was a good correlation between microbial findings from superficial swabs and deep tissue specimens when they were delivered to the microbiology laboratory immediately after collection.
CAP would be of great value. However, the last multi-center publicationof etiology of CAP in Chinese urban population was almost a decade ago and situation remained changing over time.[ 5 ] We, therefore, performed a systematic literature review from both international and domestic databases to summarize some of the most concerning questions in CAP such as incidence, etiological distribution and resistance to antibiotics in China.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science as well as nationwide recognized databases such as WanFang (wanfangdata
Maria Z. Mutafchieva, Milena N. Draganova-Filipova, Plamen I. Zagorchev and George T. Tomov
cytomega-lovirus as a potential etiologic agent in recurrent aphthous ulcers and Behçet’s disease. J Oral Pathol Med 1996;25(5):212-8
15. Girardi C, Luz C, Cherubini K, et al. Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, psychological factors in patients with oral lichen planus. Arch Oral Biol 2011;56(9):864-8.
16. Shah B, Ashok L, Sujatha GP. Evaluation of salivary cortisol and psychological factors in patients with oral lichen planus. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:288-92.
17. La Nasa G, Cottoni F, Mulargia M, et al. HLA antigen distribution