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The concept of a dialogue is considered in general terms from the standpoint of its referential presuppositions. The semantics of dialogue implies that dialogue participants must generally have a collective intentionality of agreed-upon references that is minimally sufficient for them to be able to disagree about other things, and ideally for outstanding disagreements to become clearer at successive stages of the dialogue. These points are detailed and illustrated in a fictional dialogue, in which precisely these kinds of referential confusions impede progress in shared understanding. It is only through a continuous exchange of question and answer in this dialogue case study that the meanings of key terms and anaphorical references are disambiguated, and a relevantly complete collective intentionality of shared meaning between dialogue participants is achieved. The importance of a minimally shared referential semantics for the terms entering into reasoning and argument in dialogue contexts broadly construed cannot be over-estimated. Where to draw the line between referential agreement and disagreement within any chosen dialogue, as participants work toward better mutual understanding in clearing up referential incongruities, is sometimes among the dialogue’s main points of dispute.
The “Problem of the Rock” (PoR) is a famous objection to Higher-Order (HO) theories of consciousness. According to PoR, the HO theorists’ claim that a mental state is conscious iff there is a higher-order mental state about it implies that a rock is also conscious iff there is a higher-order mental state about it. In this paper I show that this argument confuses two grammatically distinct attributions of consciousness, and that if the consequent equivocation fallacy is avoided, PoR is either a straw man argument or has an unproblematic conclusion.
Organizational networks are vulnerable to trafficanalysis attacks that enable adversaries to infer sensitive information fromnetwork traffic—even if encryption is used. Typical anonymous communication networks are tailored to the Internet and are poorly suited for organizational networks.We present PriFi, an anonymous communication protocol for LANs, which protects users against eavesdroppers and provides high-performance traffic-analysis resistance. PriFi builds onDining Cryptographers networks (DC-nets), but reduces the high communication latency of prior designs via a new client/relay/server architecture, in which a client’s packets remain on their usual network path without additional hops, and in which a set of remote servers assist the anonymization process without adding latency. PriFi also solves the challenge of equivocation attacks, which are not addressed by related work, by encrypting traffic based on communication history. Our evaluation shows that PriFi introduces modest latency overhead (≈ 100ms for 100 clients) and is compatible with delay-sensitive applications such as Voice-over-IP.
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złożonych , Czasopismo Inżynierii Lądowej, Środowiska i Architektury, JCEEA, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, Rzeszów 2017, Vol. XXXIV, Issue 64, 287–296, doi:10.7862/rb.2017.246 (in Polish).  Ciaponi C., Franchioli L.,Papiri S., Simplified Procedure for Water Distribution Networks Reliability Assessment , Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management-Asce, Vol. 138/2012, No. 4, 368–376. doi: 10.1061/(asce)wr.1943-5452.0000184.  Boccafoschi A., Rejtano B., Reliability analysis of water supply systems by the entropy and equivocation theory , Crc