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Czech pension reform: how to reconcile equivalence with fiscal discipline

Abstract

One of the recent changes in the Czech Republic’s pension system was provoked by a petition to the Constitutional Court. The setting of bend points for determining the amount of pensions depending on the insured person’s previous earnings was contested as discrimination against higher income categories. The Constitutional Court granted the petition. The result was an approval and implementation of an amendment to Act No. 155/1995 Coll., on Pension Insurance, that for the purposes of calculating the level of old-age pensions favoured the highest income decile at the expense of most other insured persons, namely those with middle incomes. Simultaneously, the political criterion of fiscal discipline was applied to ensure the financial sustainability of the pension system. In analysing this case, we critically adopt the theory of actor-centred institutionalism and the theory of the policy cycle. From the nature of the analysed case it follows that we pay attention mainly to the legislative process which resulted in the amendment. Our methodology is dominated by analysis of documents (legal norms, court decisions, political programmes, official publications) and political and administrative communication (including debates on legislative drafts in the executive and legislature).

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Measurement Techniques for Electromagnetic Shielding Behavior of Braided-Shield Power Cables: An Overview and Comparative Study

Abstract

More and more EMC tests have shown that the radiated emission problems of the equipment under test mainly concentrate on the intercon- nected power cables and cable connectors. Measurement of shielding performance is a prerequisite for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the frequency-dependent characteristic of braided-shield power cables and cable connectors. Due to the asymmetric geometric structures of these cable assemblies, compared with the coaxial and symmetrical communication cables, the commonly used transfer impedance testing methods may not be suitable. In view of this, several improved simple and effective measurement methods, including transfer impedance and shield reduction factor testing methods, were proposed in recent years. These methods, based on the equivalent circuit model of the characteristic parameters, provide good repeatability for the measurement of shielding performance. This paper presents an overview analysis of various measurement techniques for shielding performance of power cables and cable connectors, highlights some of its equivalence principle in measurement setups, and showcases a brief comparison between transfer impedance and shield reduction factor.

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On A Schwarszchild-Like Metric

] Tomozei (Mociuţchi) Cleopatra, Studiul relativist al câmpului gravific rezultând dintr-o metrică bazată pe o nouă exprimare a principiului echivalenţei (The relativistic study of the gravitational field resulting from a metric based on a new expression of the equivalence principle) , An. Şt. Univ., Iaşi (s.n.), Sect.I, Tom VIII/1, 1962, p.131-138. [5] Mociuţchi Cleopatra, Observaţii privind interpretarea principiului echivalenţei locale (Observations regarding the interpretation of local equivalence principle) , An. Şt. Univ., Iaşi (s.n.), sect. Ib, Tom 11 (1965

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The limits of weighing

References [1] A. Einstein, Die Grundlagen der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie, Annalen der Physik, 49 , 769, (1916). [2] Equivalence principle, ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_principle, (2007). [3] J.A. Poulis and J.M. Thomas, Sensitivity of analytical balances and relevance of fluctuation theory, [in:] Vacuum Microbalance Techniques. Vol. 3, (K.H. Behrndt, Ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1-14, (1963). [4] H. Ishimura, The limit to the accuracy of weighing caused by Brownian

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Electricity Price Forecasting Using Monte Carlo Simulation: The Case of Lithuania

References Amelin M. (2004). On Monte Carlo Simulation and Analysis of Electricity Markets. Doctoral Thesis. Royal Institute of Technology. Benth, F.E., Cartea, Á. and Kiesel, R. (2008). Pricing forward contracts in power markets by the certainty equivalence principle: Explaining the sign of the market risk premium. Journal of Banking & Finance, 32(10), 2006-2021. Benth, F.E., Kiesel, R. and Nazarova, A. (2011). A critical empirical study of three electricity spot price models. Energy Economics

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On Possible Determination of the Speed of the Gravity Signal in Space with help of Gradiometry

. Symp. On Experimental Gravitational Physics , Guangzhou, China, August 1987, ed. P. F. Michelson (world Scientific, Singapore), pp.229-244, 1987. T. J. Sumner, J. Anderson, J.-P. Blaser, A. M. Cruise, T. Damour, H. Dittus, C. W. F. Everitt, B. Foulon, Y. Jafry, B. J. Kent, N. Lockerbie, F. Loeffler, G. Mann, J. Mester, C. Pegrum, R. Reinhardt, M. Sandford, A. Scheicher, C. C. Speake, R. Torii, et al. STEP(satellite test of the equivalence principle). Adv. Space Res. Vol. 39, No.2, pp.254258, 2007. Iafolla, V

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Tesla Coil Theoretical Model and its Experimental Verification

. Greivulis and A. Voitkāns, “Single Wire and Respective Double Wire Scheme Equivalence Principle.”7th International Scientific Conference „Engineering for Rural development”, Jelgava, 2008. [8] J. Voitkāns, S. Voitkāns, A. Voitkāns. LV patents Nr. 13785 “Elektriski vadoša ķermeņa paškapacitātes mērītājs”, “Patenti un preču zīmes”, 2008. Nr. 10. [9] I. Dūmiņš Elektrotehnikas teorētiskie pamati. Pārejas procesi, garās līnijas, nelineārās ķēdes., Zvaigzne ABC, Rīgā, 2006. [10] J. Voitkāns, A. Voitkāns and I. Osmanis

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The Genesis of General Relativity: Interaction between Einstein’s, Abraham’s and Nordström’s Research Programmes

, ed., The Genesis of General Relativity. Vol. 3. Gravitation in the Twilight of Classical Physics: Between Mechanics, Field Theory and Astronomy. Dordrecht: Springer, 2007). Nordström, Gunnar, 1913a. Trage und Schwere Masse in der Relativitätsmechanik, Annalen der Physik , 40, 856–878. Nordström, Gunnar, 1913b. Zur Theorie der Gtavitation vom Standpukt des Relativitätsprinzip, Annalen der Physik, 42, 533–534. Norton, John D., 1986. What was Einstein’s Principle of Equivalence Principle? – In: Einstein’s Studies , vol. 1. Norton, John D

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Validation of the Slovenian version of motor imagery questionnaire 3 (MIQ-3): Promising tool in modern comprehensive rehabilitation practice

therapeutic interventions ( 10 , 11 ). Hence, it shows a promising indication of implementation in the rehabilitation practice of orthopaedic ( 12 , 13 ) and Parkinson’s disease patients ( 11 ), following immobilization ( 14 ) or stroke rehabilitation ( 10 , 15 ). The efficiency of MI practice might be examined by the functional equivalence principle ( 7 , 16 ), which is based on the theory that imagery enhances performance because of the similar neurophysiological processes that underlie both imagery and actual movement ( 17 , 18 ), and has found its support elsewhere

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Größenvorteile, Skaleneffizienz und Wettbewerb zwischen Gebietskörperschaften bei der Produktion öffentlicher Güter: Evidenz aus der Schweiz

Bevölkerung der Gebietskörperschaft der marginale Nutzen der öffentlichen Güter gleich den marginalen Kosten sein ( equivalence principle ). Dies bedingt, dass die Finanzierung mit der Kompetenz zur Produktion von öffentlichen Gütern übereinstimmt. Weiter fügt Oates (1972) in seinem Dezentralisierungstheorem hinzu, dass die optimale Bereitstellung den Ausgleich ( Trade-off ) zwischen einer effizienten Produktion und einer möglichst präferenzgerechten Bereitstellung abbilden sollte. Demnach ist eine dezentrale Bereitstellung immer dann produktionstechnisch optimal, wenn

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