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Equal Opportunities in the Field of Sports - An Investigation of History, Environmental Factors, Facility Network and Organisational Circumstances in Cross-Country Skiing and Canoeing in Finland

Services in the field of sports as a public service and as a voluntary-based civil initiative are developing on the grounds of national, regional history, environmental factors, and governmental policy, which then educate expert personnel, provide directly or induce indirectly finance for operation and facility construction. In this article the authors analyse whether equal opportunity exists in practising cross-country skiing or canoeing in Finland. Finland is one of the richest countries in Europe when it comes to natural space. The legislative basis to practice nature-based, outdoor recreational and competitive sports is laid down in the "Everyman's Right". Both of the examined sports have a long history in Finland. The weather and environment are more than suitable for practising either of these sports. The facility network is well developed for cross-country skiing but insufficient for canoeing. A magnitude difference to be found in the popularity of the two sports. By utilising the historical and natural resources and bettering organisational effectiveness, development has broad perspectives in canoeing.

1 THE STATUS OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES OMBUDSMAN IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA: SELECTED PROBLEMATIC ISSUES INGA ŽALĖNIENĖ DANGUOLĖ GRIGOLOVIČIENĖ INTRODUCTION The common principle of equality is set forth in Article 29 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania. Implementation of this fundamental principle is set out in detail in the norms of various fields of law, including special legislation, which forbid discrimination on the grounds of sex, age, sexual orientation, disability, race, ethnic origin, religion


This research was undertaken to examine the gender perspective of the technical efficiency of catfish farming in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. Primary data elicited from a sample size of 70 catfish farmers (38 male and 32 female catfish farmers) were employed in the study. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier production function. The maximum likelihood estimates of the stochastic frontier production function revealed that the mean technical efficiency of the male catfish farmers (86%) was higher than that of the female catfish farmers (20%) and this implies that the male and female catfish farmers have the scope of improving their efficiency by 14% and 80%, respectively, through the use of farming practices used by the most efficient male and female catfish farmers. The factors that were significant in influencing the technical efficiency of the female catfish farmers were farming experience and credit while in the case of the male catfish farmers, farming experience significantly influenced their technical efficiency. In the light of the low technical efficiency of the female catfish farmers relative to the male catfish farmers, it was recommended that gender equality infishery training, extension delivery, distribution of resources and access to supportive services should be encouraged in a bid to improve the technical efficiency of the catfish farmers especially that of the female catfish farmers.


The present study aims at highlighting some of the impacts that labour market an education mutually have on each other both in the context of economies in transition (even if they used to have long historic traditions related to pioneering in instruction and education at mass and elite level) and that of a steady and consequent capitalist state undisturbed by the storms of radical political changes and periods of totally negating the values and results created by former historic eras and communities.

The main idea is that the relationship between the labour market and education is that of a mutual demand and supply based corelation, permanently influencing each other, so no political or economic authority and power should miss taking this into consideration unless they want to fail.


Disability results in certain economic consequences, which are analysed mainly because of the generation of cost. The economic situation of people with disabilities and their families is usually associated with negative effects of neoliberalism, or causing and strengthening social inequality and excluding people unattractive on the market. In this context, the relationship between technological progress, economic growth and diagnostic and therapeutic services are also analysed. The article presents various aspects of the economic discourse focused on disability. The analysis is based on examples that consolidate the traditional image of disability as a factor affecting low economic status, through a description of the market of services and goods for people with disabilities, to examples of economic success achieved by people with disabilities.

) ‘Transition for all: Equal opportunities in an unequal world’, pp. 45–59. doi: 978-1-898802-45-7. Forenbacher, I. et al. (2019) ‘Determinants of mobile phone ownership in Nigeria’, Telecommunications Policy. doi: 10.1016/j.telpol.2019.03.001. Ghosh, S. (2016) ‘Does mobile telephony spur growth? Evidence from Indian states’, Telecommunications Policy. doi: 10.1016/j.telpol.2016.05.009. Ghosh, S. (2017) ‘Broadband penetration and economic growth: Do policies matter?’, Telematics and Informatics. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2016.12.007. Gruber, H. and Koutroumpis, P. (2011) ‘Mobile

notion of the fair equal opportunity principle in a just system and the plausibility of including disadvantages emerging from bad luck in the natural lottery in the domain of justice. The discussion proceeds with particular interest in the distinction between genetic diseases and other consequences of the natural lottery, such as personal traits and features. Justice and the Fair Equal Opportunity Principle . Theories on justice set forth principles in order for society to have a fair fundamental structure. This fair structure enables individuals in that society to

:// . European Commission. (2012). Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe , 2012 Edition . Retrieved from . Fehérvári, A. (2008). Esélyegyenlőség a nyelvi előkészítő évfolyamokon [Equal Opportunities in YILL]. Új Pedagógiai Szemle, 58(2) , 30–50. Fehérvári, A. (2009a). Kik a nyelvi előkészítő képzés nyertesei [Who are the Beneficiaries of YILL]? Iskolakultúra, 9 , 62–71. Fehérvári, A. (2009b). Intenzív felzárkózás? A nyelvi előkészítő program vizsgálata


Intercultural education advances the comprehension of different people and cultures. It emphasizes teaching that accepts and respects that diversity is normal in all areas of life. It attempts to sensitize the pupil to the concept that we all have developed in varied ways and that different does not mean “wrong”. In the presented article, we deal with a term defined in the context of intercultural education. We think about the way of its implementation in primary education, while respecting all the attributes of cultural differentiation. Intercultural education examines forms of xenophobia, trying to diminish them, and advocates equal opportunities for all. Intercultural education works to modify individuals and institutions and so transform the society (What is intercultural education? Do we in the West have the materials to accomplish this in our classrooms?).


The procedural revolution of technology making people more and more linked to virtual based lives, and providing an outline to live in online-based curriculums. However, not all the nations have the same level of access and equal opportunities to grip the fruit of communication technology, hence the social presence in cyberspace suppose to differ from nations to nations. The study tends to explore the facets of technology-mediated text-based correspondences of the young generation, who often apt to use their own technologically advanced telecommunication devices. To conceptualize the qualitative aspect of the study into quantitative findings, the key assumptions are tested in each step of the factor analysis process. Based on the scanned cases of the survey, the study concludes that the young generation of the nations, where technological advancement is yet to flourish is less formal, more emotionally sensitive and more open about their state of the mind compared to the technologically advanced nations.