Equal Opportunities in the Field of Sports - An Investigation of History, Environmental Factors, Facility Network and Organisational Circumstances in Cross-Country Skiing and Canoeing in Finland
Services in the field of sports as a public service and as a voluntary-based civil initiative are developing on the grounds of national, regional history, environmental factors, and governmental policy, which then educate expert personnel, provide directly or induce indirectly finance for operation and facility construction. In this article the authors analyse whether equal opportunity exists in practising cross-country skiing or canoeing in Finland. Finland is one of the richest countries in Europe when it comes to natural space. The legislative basis to practice nature-based, outdoor recreational and competitive sports is laid down in the "Everyman's Right". Both of the examined sports have a long history in Finland. The weather and environment are more than suitable for practising either of these sports. The facility network is well developed for cross-country skiing but insufficient for canoeing. A magnitude difference to be found in the popularity of the two sports. By utilising the historical and natural resources and bettering organisational effectiveness, development has broad perspectives in canoeing.
Oyinbo Oyakhilomen, Mohammed Olajide Murtala, Falola Abraham and Saleh Mamman Kwagyang
This research was undertaken to examine the gender perspective of the technical efficiency of catfish farming in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. Primary data elicited from a sample size of 70 catfish farmers (38 male and 32 female catfish farmers) were employed in the study. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier production function. The maximum likelihood estimates of the stochastic frontier production function revealed that the mean technical efficiency of the male catfish farmers (86%) was higher than that of the female catfish farmers (20%) and this implies that the male and female catfish farmers have the scope of improving their efficiency by 14% and 80%, respectively, through the use of farming practices used by the most efficient male and female catfish farmers. The factors that were significant in influencing the technical efficiency of the female catfish farmers were farming experience and credit while in the case of the male catfish farmers, farming experience significantly influenced their technical efficiency. In the light of the low technical efficiency of the female catfish farmers relative to the male catfish farmers, it was recommended that gender equality infishery training, extension delivery, distribution of resources and access to supportive services should be encouraged in a bid to improve the technical efficiency of the catfish farmers especially that of the female catfish farmers.
Inclusive education guarantees the right of education for every child despite their physical and/or mental disabilities. In other words inclusion aims at placement of special education students in general classrooms giving learners equal possibilities of education within the differences in their abilities to learn. Unfortunately, the implementation of inclusive education in Albania is still facing lots of difficulties. Traditionally, Albanian children with disabilities are segregated into separate learning environments. However, during the last two decades attempts are made to integrate them in the mainstream education. Although we are far from a successful implementation of inclusive education we consider it as very important since it maximizes the learning experiences of both mainstream and disabled learners. In this paper, the factors related to the inclusion of learners with disabilities in the mainstream education are discussed. Drafting of an inclusive curriculum which is the same for all schools and all learners, whether they are in mainstream or special schools is considered as crucial. The paper raises the questions of changing the attitude of educators in regard to learners with disabilities, increasing their professional knowledge about the learning differences as well as highlighting the tools of how to address each of them so that equal possibility to gain knowledge within the limits of capability are given to all learners. The significance and relevant effects of these factors will be the basis of the conclusion of this paper.
The questions related to the role of women in the world of labour and to the rate of female and male employees are issues that have been discussed since long ago. Equality of women and the fight against the discrimination of women are hot topics not only for the “weaker sex” as there are abundant research and literature dealing with the question whether feminism, the lengthy pursuit for the equality of women can be regarded successful or there are still much to do for the elimination of negative discrimination of women at workplaces. In this context, I examine in my study whether the increasing of the share of female employees, the action plans on raising the share of executive positions filled by women, and the related conferences live up to the expectations, and can women really have the same place on the labour market as men have.
The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern period.
The research is focused on different aspects of gender education in Canadian schools, namely the objectives, principles, methods, content and means. The transformation dynamics of the aforementioned gender education dimensions at each stage has been examined. It has been concluded that the objectives of gender education in Canadian secondary schools have considerably evolved since 1960’s; the methods and means of teaching students about gender have become more versatile and relevant to the requirements of the present-day informational technology society; the content of gender education has extended its scope. The provision of gender education in secondary educational establishments in Canada has transformed from a haphazard “add women and stir” approach to a more consistent manner, which demands availability of certain policies (gender equity policy, anti-discrimination policy, safe schools policy) and codes of conduct in action at schools; integration of gender equity issues into different subject courses across the curriculum, as well as introducing separate fully-fledged courses, like “Women’s Studies”, “Men’s Studies”, “Gender Studies”.
The present study aims at highlighting some of the impacts that labour market an education mutually have on each other both in the context of economies in transition (even if they used to have long historic traditions related to pioneering in instruction and education at mass and elite level) and that of a steady and consequent capitalist state undisturbed by the storms of radical political changes and periods of totally negating the values and results created by former historic eras and communities.
The main idea is that the relationship between the labour market and education is that of a mutual demand and supply based corelation, permanently influencing each other, so no political or economic authority and power should miss taking this into consideration unless they want to fail.
notion of the fair equalopportunity principle in a just system and the plausibility of including disadvantages emerging from bad luck in the natural lottery in the domain of justice. The discussion proceeds with particular interest in the distinction between genetic diseases and other consequences of the natural lottery, such as personal traits and features.
Justice and the Fair EqualOpportunity Principle . Theories on justice set forth principles in order for society to have a fair fundamental structure. This fair structure enables individuals in that society to
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, F. 2006. The political economy of gender: Explaining cross variation in the gender division of labor and the gender voting gap. American journal of Political Science, 50 (1):1-19.
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