Kristoffer Hylander, Sileshi Nemomissa and Woldeyohannes Enkosa
Anonymous 2010. R Develomment core team. A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
Barthlott W., Schmit-Neuerburg V., Nieder J. & Engwald S. 2001. Diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes: a comparison of secondary vegetation and primary montane rain forest in the Venezuelan Andes. Plant Ecology 152 : 145-156.
Camargo J. L., & Kapos V. 1995. Complex edge effects on soil moisture and microclimate in central Amazonian forest. J
Fredy Archila Morales, Dariusz L. Szlachetko and Sławomir Nowak
Scaphyglottis cobanensis Archila, Szlach. & S. Nowak (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae) is described and compared with the morphologically close species S. bifida (Rchb. f.) C. Schweinf. and S. lindeniana (A. Rich. & Galeotti) L. O. Williams. The new species is illustrated with SEM images of the labellum and gynostemium.
Barbara Fojcik, Martyna Chruścińska, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha and Adam Stebel
Adams K.L. (1990): Proposal for a 5-km 2 mapping scheme for eastern England. – Bulletin of the British Bryological Society 55: 14-17.
Adams K.L. & Preston C.D. (1992): Evidence for the effects of atmospheric pollution on bryophytes from national and local recording. In: Harding P.T. (ed.): Biological recording of changes in British wildlife, pp. 31-43, HMSO, London.
Barkman J.J. (1958): Phytososiology and ecology of cryptogamic epiphytes. Van Gorcum, Assen.
Basile A., Giordano S., Spagnuolo V., Alfano F. & Castaldo Cobianchi R
Maria Špoljar, Jelena Fressl, Tvrtko Dražina, Matija Meseljević and Zlatko Grčić
Epiphytic metazoans on emergent macrophytes in oxbow lakes of the Krapina River, Croatia: differences related to plant species and limnological conditions
This study investigated the structure of the epiphytic metazoans on emerged macrophytes in the littoral zone of two oxbow lakes with different trophic levels. Differences in the diversity and density of the epiphytic metazoans were analyzed in relation to plant architecture (simple or complex stems), food resources (algae and detritus) and water characteristics (transparency and derived trophic state index). A significant negative correlation was found between detritus on plants as food resource, and diversity and density of epiphytic metazoans, indicating grazing of microphagous species. Rotifers dominated in diversity and density in the epiphyton on all habitats. Total density of metazoans, rotifers and copepods in epiphyton were significantly higher on Mentha in mesotrophic lake than on Iris in a eutrophic lake. We presume that macrophyte belt width and trophic state governed biotic interactions and consequently epiphytic assemblages more strongly than macrophyte architecture. However, a Mentha habitat showed a slightly higher density and diversity of epiphytic metazoans in relation to Iris at the same site, but these differences were not significant.
fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest (NE Poland). Acta Mycologica , 36: 13-19.
Czyżewska K., Cieśliński S., Motiejünaite J., Kolanko K. 2002: The Budzisk nature reserve as a biocentre of lichen diversity in the Knyszyńska Large Forest (NE Poland). Acta Mycologica , 37 (1/2): 77-92.
Culberson C.F., Ammann K. 1979: Standardmethode zur Dünnschichtchromatographie von Flechtensubstanzen. Herzogia , 5: 1-24.
Davies L., Purvis W., James P. 2004: A study of epiphytes in London under a climate of
A lvey A. A. 2006. Promoting and preserving biodiversity in the urban forest. Urban forestry and Urban Greening 5: 195-201. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2006.09.003
B arkman J. J. 1958. Phytosociology and ecology of cryptogamic epiphytes. I-XIII + 628 pp. Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V., Assen.
B ates W., P roctor M. C. F., P reston C. D., H odgetts N. G. & P erry A. R. 1997. Occurrence of epiphytic bryophytes in a ‘tetrad’ transect across southern Britain. 1. Geographical trends in abundance and evidence of recent change. J Bryol 19: 685
Dariusz L. Szlachetko, Monika M. Lipińska and Iwona Skorowska
The orchid genus Dipteranthus, described by Rodrigues in 1882, comprises about 10 species distributed from Venezuela to Bolivia and Brazil. Plants of Dipteranthus are small epiphytes, reaching in total up to 10 cm in length, hence, are easily overlooked in the field. Modern classification of Dipteranthus is still under discussion. During the revision of orchids of the Guianas, we came across some specimens that do not match morphological characters of any previously known Dipteranthus species. Thus, we propose that these specimens represent a new species – Dipteranthus clarkei sp. nov. D. clarkei is the first representative of the genus known from Guyana.
Jochen Heinrichs, Dale H. Vitt, Alfons Schäfer-Verwimp, Eugenio Ragazzi, Giovanni Marzaro, David A. Grimaldi, Paul C. Nascimbene, Kathrin Feldberg and Alexander R. Schmidt
Dominican amber is an important source for Early Miocene bryophytes. We report the moss Macromitrium richardii Schwägr., an extant representative of the Orthotrichaceae, from the Dominican amber collection of the American Museum of Natural History. This species is currently a widespread Neotropical epiphyte. The specimen includes several gametophytes and sporophytes, and represents the first fossil record of Orthotrichaceae. Alongside the Macromitrium shoots we observed several fragments of the liverworts Cheilolejeunea antiqua and Frullania sp. The unusual thermal behavior of the resin sample initially led to doubts about the Miocene age of the specimen, but chemical analyses of the Hymenaea resin provides evidence that the specimen represents a highly oxidized sample of Miocene Dominican amber rather than an artificially thermally-treated subfossil resin (copal). Our inclusion demonstrates the exceptional preservation potential of tree resin, but our observations also suggest that provenance (including any possibility that a modern resin has been thermally treated to make it appear older) should be scrutinized when single pieces with atypical thermal behavior and exceptionally well-preserved extant morphotypes come to light.
Dariusz Skarżyński, Agata Piwnik and Anna Krzysztofiak
Faunistic and ecological studies on saproxylic Collembola species were carried out in the Wigry National Park (NE Poland). Nine sites representing Tilio-Carpinetum, Serratulo-Pinetum and Peucedano-Pinetum habitats each including three different levels of disturbance were visited twice in 2015. Samples from fallen logs in different stages of decay, neighboring litter and soil as well as arboreal epiphytes were taken on each visit. The Collembola specimens were then extracted using Tullgren funnels resulting in a total of 73 838 specimens from 270 samples. Specimen identification revealed the occurrence of 63 species, including 5 saproxylobiontic, 7 saproxylophilous, 4 xerophilous species living in epiphytic mosses and lichens as well as 47 hemiedaphic or euedaphic species. This composition of saproxylic fauna seems to be typical for the region with the most diverse assemblages being found in Tilio-Carpinetum habitats, while Serratulo-Pinetum and Peucedano-Pinetum are clearly less diverse. Additionally, a slight decrease in the number of Collembola species with increasing forest disturbance was observed. Furthermore, an increase in the number of Collembola species with the degree of dead wood decomposition was also found. This indicates that saproxylic springtail assemblages are sensitive to anthropogenic changes.
We analyze the geographical and elevational ranges and the habitats of 30 species and two varieties of Lejeunea Lib. recorded from Malaysia. The greatest diversity of Lejeunea in Malaysia is found on Mt. Kinabalu with 27 species. The majority of the species are Malesian in distribution with a high number (8) belonging to the West Malesian element. Widely distributed species are often autoicous and produce spores freely; those with narrow distributions are more often dioicous and rarely produce spores. Dispersal of dioicous species seems to be promoted by asexual reproduction, being more common in wide-ranging dioicous species than in narrow-ranging ones. Endemism is 10% with three species being known only from Mt. Kinabalu. Range sizes of species decrease towards higher elevation and endemic species occur exclusively in the mountains. About half of the species occur in the lower montane rainforest belt, which is the elevational zone with the highest diversity of Lejeunea in Malaysia. The majority of the species are epiphytes, either corticolous or ramicolous. One species (L. dimorpha) is an obligate epiphyll. The new species Lejeunea tamaspocsii G. E. Lee is described and two new combinations, L. dipterota (Eifrig) G. E. Lee and L. exilis var. abnormis (Herzog) G. E. Lee, are proposed.